What is Sonoran?
- e.d. Mar 6, 2003 08:09 AM
I've been reading some of the recent posts where Phoenix hounds have been discussing Mexican places, calling some Sonoran, some not. There was even one post that seemed to equate Sonoran with Tex-Mex. Down here in Yuma, we have some restaurants that seem to be Sonoran, but we also have a lot of Baja and Jalisco influences. What makes a restaurant Sonoran? What are the signature dishes? How do they do green chili? How do they do tacos? Are any caldos or sopas characteristic? Salsas? Enchiladas? Yellow or white cheese? Are there clues that let you decide that a place definitely is/isn't Sonoran? Help!
I can't seem to find any good resources that would explain Sonoran food so you're going to get my personal feelings on it. Basically I consider Sonoran the typical Mexican food you see out here in the Southwest like tacos, tostadas, burros, enchiladas, chimichangas, fajitas, red and green chile, chile rellenos, and tamales. I don't include seafood because it tends not to be nearly as common or bastardized. (The American version of fish tacos is pretty poor, and you'll never mistake it the grilled fish tacos that inspired it unless the restaurant has made an effort to rise above complete mediocrity.)
I was the person who lumped Tex-Mex and Sonoran together, and I do that because sometimes there's not really much difference between the two. Sonoran food has become so common that it almost lacks distinction at times. Of course there are other times when the differences are significant, and maybe it's not fair to think of them as the same.
The item that demonstrates the most significant difference, I would say, are soft tacos. The typical Mexican soft taco consists of chopped meat served on top of corn tortillas and topped with chopped white onion and cilantro. Obviously that's very different from the type of soft taco they serve at Taco Bell. Hard tacos also tend to be a little different. The typical Mexican ones I've had are shredded meat wrapped up in a corn tortilla and deep fried. They pretty much only come with shredded lettuce and sour cream. The emphasis seems to be more on the shell than the meat, and you can really taste the difference between a premade taco shell and a fresh hard taco straight from the fryer. Even without the emphasis on the meat, the meat tends to be better (if less abundant) than their premade taco shell brethren.
Anyway, I have to leave so I'll answer a couple of your questions really quickly.
> How do they do green chili?
Every place seems to make green chile differently. I've had it anywhere from soupy to pasty to almost completely dry.
> Are any caldos or sopas characteristic?
Menudo, chicken tortilla, and albondigas all come to mind.
I appreciate the information. One of these days, when I have a little more time, I will post about the differences that I think exist between traditional Sonoran and the more common border Mexican that is becoming increasingly popular down here. When I do that post I will really appreciate feedback from you and others about whether it fits with what you've found. You're right that the restaurants tend to copy each other and that one type of Mexican tends to blend seamlessly into another which makes it difficult to be sure if a dish or preparation is truly traditional Sonoran or just something popular that a Sonoran style place felt necessary to add to their menu. Thanks again
No, when it comes to eating, I don't much care about authentic--and in fact, I don't think I like authentic Sonoran as much as some other border Mexican foods. But I am interested in how border Mexican food became like it is, and how to tell, from glancing at a menu or trying some food, whether the cuisine is Sonoran or not. My interest in categories is mostly academic curiosity that arose from noticing the variations in the dishes I was eating. Just one example: when ordering green chili in Yuma I have been served a spicy pork with chilies and tomatillos, a similar dish that was mild, a spicy beef stew with chilies and tomatillos, a mild chunky beef dish with big chunks of green chilies, and mild flavored coarsely ground beef with pieces of green chilies. The last two are what I consider the most Sonoran. One local restuarant serves green chile beef enchiladas with ground beef/chile filling in a flour tortilla covered in green sauce.
After coming across this site through the dogpile search engine I feel the need to offer my dos pesos...
Sonoran food is indeed different from other mexican styles. I don't know what Tex-Mex is like but if Tex-Mex is the typical American restaraunt style food then you certainly can't group Sonoran style in there with it...
Sonoran style food comes from Sonora Mexico, which is a state in Mexico. Homestyle hardshell tacos, done Sonoran style are fried in the shell...the meat is sometimes shredded, but more often (like my mother and abuelita did it) made into a hamburger like patti which is spiced with salt, pepper, garlic...ect...and the tacos are served with watever condiments you prefer...usually cheese, lettuce, cilatro and salsa...
Soft tacos are done typically with corn tortillas, flour tortillas are also used and seem to be prefered by the tourists for some reason. Soft tacos are filled with a great variety of meats including but not limited to carne asade (usually marinaded in a citrus mixture), pollo asado (also marinaded), pescado (fish), tripas or tripitas (beef milk ducts), cabeza (tender muscular flesh taken from the head of the cow), carne pastor (pork slow cooked with pineaple gyro style and cut into thin slices)....ect...
There is really no comparison between what you get in a typical Mexican-American restaraunt and the kind of food you might get in real Sonoran towns like Nogales or Puerto Penasco.
Chimichangas served Sonoran style are typically pan fried, not deep fried like their American counter parts and almost everything served "Sonoran style" is served with mayonaise...
There are a thousand different recipes unique to Sonora...or at least there are unique variations of other Mexican dishes. Sonoran style backyard mezcal is called bacanora.
Here's a "Sonoran" recipe straight from my Tata to you folks out there wanting to know what's up with Sonoran food. He called this the Clam Tostada (also the name of a great and upcoming Arizona band out there for those of you who might want to listen to some good folk-rock/americana http://artists.mp3s.com/artists/458/m... ) The clam tostada recipe is delicious and easy...
Baby Clams (fresh or canned
)Mix in some diced cilantro and green onions,
lemon or lime, salt, garlic...
Serve on a tostada shell over refried beans (remember to refry the beans in bacon grease and cheese cause that's how they do it in Sonora)
Top with the salsa of your choice preferably fresh...just throw some diced pealed steam tomatos in the blender along with a few jalapenos, green onion, fresh garlic, cilatro, salt and maybe just a dash of cumin...mmmmmm...
Anyhow...ummm...that may even be 9.5 pesos worth, you guys owe me about 95 cents...depending on current exchange rates...
--Mark (Living in occupied Sonora)
re: Mark Anthony
Thanks for your "dos pesos", Mark. We got more than our money's worth. Thanks for the recipe for clam tostados. It sounds easy to put together and delectable.
We hope you'll find your way back to Chowhound again. Where do you like to eat (details, please!), where you live. We'll anticipate more from you about that on our International message board. Pat
re: Mark Anthony
Hi Mark -
I do enjoy the music of the CT - never knew that there was a recipe behind it, though. I think that the Mexican-American food that you referred to can be mroe specifically defined as Arizona's version of Mexican food. Rarely do I see combo food platters ordered by the letter elsewhere in the country. Additionally, the only seafood that I know of that's served with any regularity in Sonora is shrimp in RP.
re: Mark Anthony
Tex-Mex is a culinary blending of the cusines of the border area of Mexico and Texas. Since that land was once part of Mexico, the heritage goes much deeper, than what one might expect.
Some aspects have been incorporated into some of what is sold in the rest of the US as "Mexican" fare. However, it is far more complex, than that. One needs to travel that border territory, crossing back and forth, to fully experience it. Unlike much of the cuisine of the rest of Mexico, it transcends a couple of states.
While I am far from an expert in this subject, I AM a big fan of Tex-Mex food. In another reply to this thread, I cover a very few of my personal observations on the differences. Without specific ingredients, let's just say that it is heavier, heartier, than is Sonoran, or some other Mexican cuisines. Talking to many of the families, who prepare Tex-Mex, this predates any influence from the US, especially as most of that was Mexico, when their forefathers were cooking it. It was different even then - heartier.
Now, just as in most of the world, recipes and dishes can differ from state to state, and from family to family. Still, there are often regional qualities, ingredients and treatments, that typify that region.
Tex-Mex can probably best be appreciated in places like Del Rio, Laredo, Nuevo Laredo and such. Get too far into the US, and things have changed to fit a more US-centric palate. Same for going too far into Mexico. Get to Monterey (not THAT far south) and the cuisine changes. The changes are not necessarily for the worse, or the better, they are just changes.
As the immigrants from Mexico (and other areas south of the US border) spread and bring their family's take on the cuisine, I think that what too many US citizens think of as Mexican cuisine, will change. That, or they will be compromised into serving what the residents of the US "consider" Mexican.
For good Sonoran, with fewer compromises, head to San Luis, AZ, and stop in at any number of great family restaurants. Even the short distance to Yuma (or Tucson, or Phoenix) has probably filtered this a bit. Much is still great, but it will probably have changed some.
Now, I am less into "authentic," as I have to ask "authentic to whom." I'm more into good, though I do embrace the differences and delight in these, so long as they are "good."
re: Pat Hammond
Thanks Pat. It was reading Canon Fowler's posts when I was a newbie hound and newbie Yuman than got me thinking about this whole subject, and I've been trying to make some sense about it ever since. When I read the recent posts discussing Phoenix area Mex, it made we wonder what folks up there thought about Sonoran because I am kindof working on my own sense of what is and is not Sonoran.
I am of Sonoran heritage, but I grew up on cooking that was constantly being evolved and sadly devolved.
To understand the difference is to understand the region. Sonora is a desert region of Mexico. It's also cattle country, versus the rest of Mexico who's meat of choice is pork or goat. With cattle the grain of choice is wheat versus corn for the rest of Mexico. Those two factors weigh heavily on the influences of Sonoran Cooking. Because of the abundance of wheat--the tortillas are made of wheat. Breads, quick breads, sweet rolls are more previlant in Sonoran cooking. Because of the beef; little of the cooking need be complex, sauses are milder, less ingredients used. The best examples of Sonoran cooking compare to the best examples of Neopolitan cooking: there are few great foods grown, but they are in abundance and the quality of these few ingredients are generally higher than elsewhere in Mexico. But Sonoran cooking requires excellent cooks. For the most part, flour tortillas are lousy, unless made by an excellent tortilla maker. Just like pizzas are unremarkable unless made by someone like Lombardi, Pero or Difara. Great Sonoran cooking can be just earthy refried beans and tortillas--but beans and tortillas that'll send you threw the roof. And no salsa is necessary. And yes, it is often border food, but at it's most ideal. Using the freshest and best ingredients, cooked to simple perfection.
But there are dishes uniquely Sonoran: the flat enchiladas, which are a thick corn masa disk deep fried then soaked in a simple red chile mole and topped with a relish of green olives, onion, then grated cheese of choice.
Menudo, of course.
Caldo con Queso.
Cazuelo: a Machaca stew.
Torta: not a sandwich, but a Sonoran version of egg foo young.
More later when I've more time to write.
My Spanish is very poor (assimilation was too successful). I was referring to strips of roasted peeled green chile peppers, often served on melted cheese or in a sour cream sauce. In my recollection, green chile wasn't often used to make chile con carne until the late sixties in Arizona. That influence was imported from New Mexico, not Mexico--though there are some stews in Sinola similar to Green Chile Con Carne.
Hi, A note: in the last 10-15yrs Sonoran food has changed some with the migration of southern Mexicans into the region bringing their style of cooking. But traditional Sonoran cooking is unique and a true cuisine in its own right. The two staples are beef and wheat which are abundant to the state. Sonoran food can best be described as earthy, simple and hearty. You won't find many complex sauces or lots of ingredients in dishes and the food is not as hot/spicy as people might think as salsas are usually a condiment and not necessarily found in the dish itself. I find southern Italian cooking and to a point Argentine cooking somewhat similar in spirit to Sonoran food.
I have read people mention tacos, burritos and such, but in my experience ( both my parents, grandparents, and beyond are Sonoran) those items are street food. In all honesty I have never had such food items in a typical Sonoran home for dinner - maybe that's just me. Beef has been on our plate almost everyday whether it was ground beef sauted with potatoes, onions, veggies and tomatoes, steak accompanied by some kind of potato, super thin steak breaded and lightly fried (Milanesa), some kind of hearty stew/soup, albondigas (meatballs). Chicken is either in a dish such as soup, or roasted, or perhaps simply pan fried. Seafood believe it or not is a part of Sonoran cooking (there is a coastline after all) but it is not an everyday thing. It will usually consist of a mild white fish pan fried, shrimp with some garlic, and of course ceviche. Corn, potatos, squash (calabasitas), peas, onions, garlic, tomatos are perhaps the basic "greens" you will find in cooking. Wheat goes on for days and Sonorans don't just eat tortiallas (where flour tortiallas are king) but there is also an array of breads that accompany dinner. Dairy is also important with many cheeses, mostly white mild cheeses like the famous Chihuahua cheese that is also made in the mountains of Sonora, the use of crema or sour cream; all that cheese is put to tasty use in quesadillas (Imuris is famous for their quesadillas). Mayonaise is used quite often as well.
Lets not forget the carne asada - most Sonorans can't wait to have an outdoor BBQ with mesquit in the coals for flavor.
Everyone has different experiences when it comes to any cuisine but overall Sonoran cooking is flavorful with minimal ingredients, it's hearty, and something to remember.
You just had it ALL right, with just a small exception, i think your parents or someone started adding sour cream to the meals but i was raised in the coast of Sonora (Huatabampo) and we do not use sour cream, but just simple table cream which i find it to be more delicious maybe because it was my "costumbre".
But you are very right too when you said that tacos and burritos are street foods, also sonoran style hot dogs are street foods and pizza and hamburgers as well. In my home, the only tacos my mom ever made were the hard shell tacos and tostadas which were delicious and miss dearly. Burritos were the kind of "quick food" you made at home to take with you to school for lunch, or to a trip, or somewhere where you knew you would get hungry, also a burrito could be just your cravings to just put beans or fresh cheese on a fresh flour tortilla that your mom just took out of the griddle, we do enjoy both kinds of tortillas, and we eat them every day, mostly the fresh made corn tortilla which is bought at the tortilleria everyday for freshness, in Sonora you try to sell a tortilla in a package with preservatives like they do here in the USA and you will go broke. We also eat fresh bread bought daily at the panaderia, we are very picky in flavor and freshness of the food, that's why our food is so good.
We do not spice our food, and there are not many dishes in mexico that may be spicy, usually the spiciness is added in a salsa or hot sauce, unless of course you are talking about ceviche, in my house for example, we liked to use serrano peppers to make it really spicy that would give you a runny nose. I guess it all depends on what people like, but most the ceviche i ate was spicy, and we do eat seafood of course, specially in Huatabampo we can eat it regularly, everyday if we want to, after all the port of Yavaros is only 10 minutes away from Huatabampo and we get all kinds of good fish, clam and shrimp between others every day, fresh of course, they had been fished at 4 am that same day, and there is no comparison to that kind of freshness.
Tacos from the street are really good though, the tastes varies from stand to stand because everyone has their own way to make them, but they are way good, and right now i am even wishing to have the ones i didn't really like comparing them to the best ones in town.
Out doors BBQs are something that we do have very often too, we do enjoy inviting our friends and getting together to grill the best beef in the country, after all, the best beef in the country is the one from Sonora. ;-)
My mother was born and raised in Huatabampo. She is now deceased, but would LOVE to find out the true way to make tamales from her home town. I know some of the recipes have evolved. She was born in 1932, so whatever you may be able to dig up.... I would GREATLY appreciate! All I remember are having wonderful beef and/or pork tamales with a strip of potato, chili (don't know what kind), green olives a perhaps a few raisins? YUMMO! I'm craving one now! ;-)
That is probably a call for a culinary/gastro anthropologist, but I'll share some "observations."
For me, it means lighter sauces. More tomatoes are used, and these are often cut into chunks, rather than being puréed into the sauce. Cheeses are often lighter, as well - less pungent, and are most often not American "cheddar." I find more flour tortillas, etc., used, in lieu of corn, though corn is not excluded. Beans are usually in whole form, and lard is often not used in the refrying, should they be refried. Chicken and pork are more prevalent, though beef is not excluded.
In opposition, Tex-Mex is more often a beef-based sauce with tomatoes puréed well into it. Beef is more often the protein of choice, though not to the exclusion of others. Corn tortillas, etc., are more often used, though flour is not unheard of. In very general terms, Tex-Mex is *usually* more hearty, while Sonoran is *usually* lighter.
Now, Bajan features more seafood, but is probably a lot closer to Sonoran, than to any form of Tex-Mex.
Jaliscan is a bit more of a mix. I found strong elements of all of the above states/types, while there. To me, it was a best of all worlds. Also, there were more moles available, but we were in Guadalajara, so we were doing "metropolitan" dining there.
Some dishes do not exist (or did not) in some of these areas - they were unique to a particular locale. Same for the menus, when one crosses the border to the US. Things that have a strong Sonoran bent, might only exist in Phoenix, Tucson or Yuma, while one would be hard pressed to find them just a few dozen miles south of San Luis.
It is rather like asking for a definition of a tamal, and including the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and South America. If you are lucky, you'll get a dozen different dishes, all great, all called a tamal, but unique to the state/country of origin.
I was fortunate to have a great little Guatemalan restaurant in New Orleans. While they were Guatemalan by origin, they specialized in the cuisine of all of the Gulf of Mexico and were as authentic to each, as was possible. We'd do a 1 ea. of their dozen tamales, and enjoy each for what they were, Cuban, Guatemalan, Vera Cruz, Yucatan, Honduran, etc.
I have to use a paraphrase from a US Supreme Court Justice, when asked to define pornography, " I know it when I see it." About the same for Sonoran - it ain't Tex-Mex, but very good, none the less.
re: Bill Hunt
I'm new and surfed into this discussion while searching for information about a cooking style I recall from many years ago. While a student at the U. of New Mexico in Albuquerque I took a part-time job as a waiter in a Mexican restaurant - La Cocina -- on Old Town Plaza.
It billed itself as a Sonoran-style restaurant but served foods very different than those described in this thread. I absolutely loved most of them but wonder if they're truly Sonoran or Tex-Mex or some other style.
The first course was always a special crisp green salad or a hearty lentil soup. A great fuss was made about the "traditional" aspect of the soup. Then came heaping baskets of hot, wonderful, sopaipillas, a puffy pastry devoured with butter and honey. New baskets were supplied throughout the meal.
I recall that yellow corn tortillas were used in all dishes, along with various moles and red chile sauces. My favorite was the "mountain" style enchilada made from 3 layers of flat tortillas with onions, cheese (can't recall what kind) and red chile sauce between. The enchilada was topped by a soft-fried egg, more sauce, then lots of torn cold iceberg lettuce. I don't remember if the original sauce had meat. If it did it would have been beef since no other options were available on the Mexican menu.
Thanks in advance for any enlightenment.
Each state has its own twists on the cuisine. The beginning, the salad, does sound Sonoran. The latter dishes, from the descriptions, seem more Eastern Mexican, and almost Tex-Mex.
To me, one of the major differentiators is the enchilada sauce - with Sonoran, I think tomato-based, red sauces. With Tex-Mex, I expect more of a rue-like beef-based sauce. It is really not unlike the differences in the US cuisines between AZ/CA and TX. Usually with NM cuisine, there is more Indio influence, with blue corn and similar, though not always.
ok, after reading all of your posts I felt obligated to write something. I know it's been a billion years but from a true Sonorense, I need to clarify.
The MECCA of Sonoran cuisine is a restaurant in Villa de Seris in Hermosillo Sonora called Xochimilco.
Sonoran cuisine IS Heavy in the use of pinto refried beans, grilled steak (NEVER marinated) and flour tortillas.
Flour tortillas are the STANDARD in Sonora! and we have two specific types. Taco size and tortillas Sobaqueras. Flour tortillas in sonora differ from other flour tortillas in the fact that Sonoran flour tortillas are almost translucent, and normally thinner than other flour tortillas. Tortillas sobaqueras are normally three to four times the size of a regular tortilla and are even thinner still.
The stapple food of Sonora, if you had to pick just one, would be the carne asada taco.
Which is ALWAYS served in a flour tortilla.
There's almost always a garnish area nearby where you can load your taco with guacamole, salsa bandera, cabage, lime, etc. (it must be noted that we NEVER put lettuce in out tacos...
if I had to describe the general flavour of Sonoran cuisine would be Limey. We basically put lime on anything.
Menudo, albondigas and gallina pinta are also very Sonoran dishes.
Sonoran tamales are normally corn or pork and regularly bigger than tamales from the rest of the republic.
Also, for some strange reason. Sonora has made the hot dog it's own.
If you were to leave a bar or club at midnight and had the munchies, went for a drive to find something to eat. Chances are 50% of the carts you will see littering the city would be hot dog carts. A mistake would be to think this are ordinary hot dogs...
Also, in Hermosillo and surrounding areas they have this monster that has sprung in recent years called "burrito percheron"
which typically is two tortillas sobaqueras side to side stuffed with minched grilled steak with garlic, tomato chunks and avocado chunks. it is a must.
Chinesse food in Hermosillo is very prominent, but it's very different from what you are used to...
Seafood IS a big part of Sonoran cuisine! (I think I read someone say otherwise.) Caguamanta tacos being a Sonora only dish. We also have our own version of the baja fish tacos, we call them Taco fish.... they are incredibly good.
And of course, I would lose all credibility if I failed to mention the Coyotas, jamoncillos and pipitorias...
Coyotas are Hermosillo's best kept secret.
So to recap.
Sonoran food is known for great beef, preference of Tortillas de Harina (flour), limey in general. (not too spicy), and lots of pinto beans and soups.
Best places to check when there....
Go to Xochimilco in Villa de Seris in Hermosillo for the best carne asada.
While you are there, buy a kilo de Coyotas.
for the best carne asada tacos go to Tacos de Armando (Tacos de la Prevo) if you see a compound-like looking school, you are in the right area. be there early at night, they have weird hours.
you can try Seafood at Los Arbolitos, or El Corral in Hermosillo, but if you go to Bahia de Kino, you HAVE to eat al El Pargo Rojo.
for fish tacos, there's El Pescadito restaurant all over town, they tend to close early tho.
for hot dogs... AKA "Dogos" well, just find a cart anywhere and you will be amazed. I do recommend "El Chema" You WILL see signs that read Hot dogs estilo obregon. try them separate from the regular ones.
For burros percherones I normally went to a cart in a residential area of Hermosillo with no name, but I'm sure there are some others that are better. I could recomemend "Mundo Percheron" they are decent. but not the best.
for chinesse Moon Wah if it still exists.
oh! and there's not a single Sonoran restaurant or truck in L.A. I've looked...
Thanks so much. A lot of what you write about is common (or at least available) in Yuma.
For example, we have numerous places to get perros (hot dogs) with amazing range of toppings.
Most carne asada here is unmarinated and definitely the king of carnes. Limes are common. But one will see both corn and flour tortillas.
While not common here, I do love mantarella tacos.
I'm hardly an expert, but I did spend nine years in Tucson, on the border of the Sonoran desert. The things I most remember about the mexican restaurants there were the chimichangas, the flour tortillas, blue or green corn tamales, mole dishes, and in the most authentic places, dirt on the floor and Christmas lights all year round!
Sonoran style food is like any other, because Sonora is not like any other state in Mexico.
Typical dishes from Sonora ( at least the central and northern part) . have a basic staple: beef and flour tortillas. Sonora used to be Mexico's "Wheat Basket" and sonorans try to avoid corn tortillas. Its is natural that you hear the term "sonoran food" in arizona ( they are bordering states).
Just to make it simple... here is a list of food you can find in any household across the state.
Pinto Beans ( sometimes refried with lard, powder chili, chorizo, queso fresco and jalapeno)
Machaca ( dehydrated beef - pounded) not shredded stewed beef.. yikes
Carne Asada - an almost charred flank stake, seasoned with salt and sometimes beer
Carne con chile - cubed or shredded beef slowed cook in "chile colorado" (served with FLOUR tortillas
Street foods are heavenly. Hot dogs are a must have if you ever visit Hermosillo ( the state capital).
Burros Percherones (oversized carne asada burrito) made with super delicious and big "tortillas sobaqueras" (armpit tortillas)... sound gross but its basically a paper thing flour tortillas with a diameter as big as the maker's arm.
Tacos (of everything!)
... also we do use corn tortillas but they have more of a frying purpose. (enchiladas, tacos dorados and broken in pieces mixed with eggs)
To drink.... beer, horchata, coca-cola, hibiscus flower iced tea, beer, and more beer. ( really ,sonorans like beer)
I was born and raised in Hermosillo, Sonora... my parents are originally from Northern Sonora, so are my grandparents and my great grandparents.... you get the idea
Sonoran cooking: carne asada, carne seca (machaca), shrimp, tortillas de harina (flour tortillas), tortillas sobaqueras (giant extra-thin flour tortillas) oven dried corn (chicos), pinole de trigo, pan perdido (tamale pie), dried red peppers, green california peppers (chile verde), cheese (queso cocido, quesadillas de Imuris, queso fresco, queso blanco, jocoque, requeson), potatoes, zucchini, onion, garlic, tomato, piloncillo, pan de espaura (baking powder bread), pan de levadura (yeast bread), coyotas, higos, tapiro,..
caldo de queso (cheese & potatoes soup), albondigas (meatballs soup), chicken stew (chicken with potatoes, green chile, olives and raisins), gallina pinta (meat, hominy and pinto beans in a stock), caldo de cazuela (machaca stew with green chile and potatoes), frijoles de la olla (pinto beans in its stock with pico de gallo) bandera sauce (green peeled diced chile with onions and tomato sauce for carne asada), grilled green onions, sonoran enchiladas, capirotada, collage de calabacitas, atole de tapiro, mermelada de higo, conservas de membrillo, citricos, melcochas, pipitorias, etc etc
Sonoran and Tex-Mex are two different styles, TOTALLY. PERIOD. I was born and raised in Phoenix, Arizona. Sonoran is NOT Tex-Mex. I live in Texas now, and I GUARANTEE that the two are DIFFERENT. VERY different. If you ask for a beef taco, a red burros, and a cheese crisp at a Sonoran style Mexican restaurant. you WILL get those three items MADE CORRECTLY. Here is a comparison of the two styles - - - - - - -
1A.- SONORAN STYLE BEEF TACO - consists of a deep-fried corn shell that is usually filled with shredd beef, NOT hamburger. This meat is highly season with salt, pepper, garlic, cumin, and maybe some red chili pepper (powder?). It is topped with beautifully shredded lettuce and cheese, (shredded using the SMALL holes in the shredder) and then topped with tomatoes, with hot SAUCE, NOT salsa.
1B. - TEX-MEX STYLE BEEF TACO - consists of a pre-made Taco Bell style shell, with hamburger that is usually not seasoned, maybe except for a little salt and pepper, with lettuce and tomatoes (if you are lucky) with some shredded cheese (shredded with the large setting of the shredder.
2A - SONORAN STYLE RED BURRO. - consists of a freshly made, thin, large,flour tortilla, that is filled with CHUNKS [NOT shredds] of red chili meat (chunks of roast beef and natural gravy that have been slowly cooked with red chili paste of some sort, salt, pepper, garlic, cumin, and Mexican oregano)
2B - TEX-MEX STYLE RED BURRO - consists of a waxy store-made-textured small to medium-sized flour tortilla with VERY lightly seasoned hamburger meat inside, (sometimes with other odd ingredients inside it, like rice, beans, lettuce, tomatoes, etc. which do NOT belong there). The "RED" part comes in a bland tasting canned beanless chili and melted Velveeta cheese on TOP of the "burrito".
3A. SONORAN STYLE CHEESE CRISP - A fresh, very large, thin, flour tortilla, left open, topped with cheddar and/or Mexican style cheeses covering the entire tortilla, and then baked in the oven (unfolded) just until the cheese melts. Sometimes, green chilis are added.
3B. TEX-MEX STYLE CHEESE CRISP - NO COMPRENDO !!! 99% of TEX-MEX restaurants do NOT even know what a cheese crisp is !!!!!!!!!!!!
I WISH somebody would open a SONORAN style Mexican restaurant in my part of Texas (BIG COUNTRY AREA).
I lived in Tucson for 10 years, and most of their Mexican restaurants claimed to feature Sonoran style rather than Tex-Mex. The other posters have pointed out the differences much better than I could, but I did want to mention that Chimichangas in a Sonoran restaurant are usually much better than those in a Tex-Mex place (if they are offered there at all).
While much has likely changed, since I hung out at Tex-Mex places, I cannot recall one "Chimi" on any menu.
I had never heard the term, until I moved to Denver, which is rather a mixed bag of Mexican fare - a little of this, and a little of that. One almost had to know the owners, to know exactly what they would prepare, and how.
I have now seen two claims for the creation of the "Chimi." One is from Macayo's in Phoenix, but I cannot recall the other, which seemed to have as much validity, as Macayo's did.
While I have had great Mexican food in Tucson (not as much, as I would have liked), I still lean toward what I know as Tex-Mex - still, Tucson has some great Mexican food.