can anyone give me the secret of browning?
I think I am a reasonably competent amateur home cook: I am willing to (and do) try lots of new recipes for all sorts of things and don't have too many disasters. BUT I can never get it right when a recipe calls for browning things in a frying pan, like fishcakes or crumbed chicken pieces, for example. My results are always that they either start to catch and burn before seeming to go that lovely golden colour, or they just stay pale so long they start to fall apart. It's such a common technique that surely it must be simple! Why can't I do it? Is it to do with....
the temperature of the oil when I put the things in?
the temperature of the continued cooking?
the depth of oil?
the type of pan - is non-stick not good for this?
or something else?
any help gratefully received as I have mulled over this for years!
Generally it doesn't have a 'depth', you're right, I would just use a coating to try to be as healthy as possible - but it occurred to me that perhaps I should be trying to re-create a kind of mini-deep fat frying effect. Thanks so much for all this advice so far - I think perhaps the non-stickness maybe my chief problem.....
Personally I alos prefer browning in butter, or even better a sort of blend of butter and vegetable oil I can get at the supermarket in Europe. I highly recommend cast iron for browning but I know that not everyone is keen on it. Still, if you haven't tried it and you get the chance to pick up something cheap at a charity shop, give it a go!
No offense to Xantha, but this advice is problematic.
Xantha is technically right that nonstick is theoretically less efficient at browning than, say, stainless clad aluminum. But the difference is very small. Also, for jobs like searing steak where you want extremely high heat to create a good crust (if your stove is even capable of this), the nonstick coating can become unstable and thus inadvisable to use.
But more generally, if you can't brown most foods in nonstick, you'll have trouble browning em in other pans as well. The problem lies elsewhere. And for certain delicate foods, nonstick is actually ideal. It is the choice of many or even most professionals for browning skin-on fish, for example.
As for oil depth: I'll agree that you don't want your food swimming in 3/4 inches of oil unless you're deliberately pan-frying it (as opposed to a saute). But I see a lot more homecooks using too little oil than too much of it. A lot of people add maybe a teaspoon of oil to a pan and then swirl it around so that the oil coats the bottom of the pan (often it doesn't). This is not enough, and will often lead to uneven browning and burning . You want enough oil to coat the bottom of the pan to efficiently brown most foods. Saying there should be no depth is misleading. Maybe an 1/8th inch of oil covering the entire bottom of your pan is much better for most foods. Food will brown far more evenly if you use enough oil.
A note on healthy - for most foods, you're not doing yourself any favors by limiting the oil used. Aside from very absorbent foods (bread cubes for croutons, eggplant, mushrooms, etc), you're only going to wind up ingesting what oil adheres to the surface of the food, which is not significantly more if you use enough oil than if you skimp. And since burnt compounds from improper searing may well be worse for you than the oil itself, I say you're better off using enough oil to get the job done properly and then draining or shaking off any excess. From your comment right above mine, i think it's likely that not enough oil is a big part of your problem.
A few other suggestions (some I'm just echoing from elsewhere in the thread):
- You want to make sure the surface of whatever you're browning is as dry as you can reasonably get it before you put it in the pan.
- Make sure the oil/pan is hot before adding food. If it doesn't sizzle immediately when food is added, the pan isn't hot enough. Note - one exception I can think of is raw potatoes, which you can add to cool oil and slowly raise the temp to both cook em through and develop a crispy crust.
- A light dusting of flour isn't necessary to get a good result for most foods, but it's still a nice trick. Especially useful to get a browned crust on foods that cook quickly without resorting to very high heat.
- The quicker a food cooks, the more heat you need to get it to brown well. So if you don't want to cook in a blazing hot pan, don't cut foods to stir-fry like bite-size pieces.
- The flipside of that last statement - if you are browning something small that cooks fast, you'll need very high heat and an oil with a high smoke point. Refined peanut oil is popular for this. Extra light olive oil works well. I use rice bran oil for the high end. Its smoke point is up near 500 deg F - there's nothing you can't brown well by getting that stuff up near its smoke point. This is one application where you definitely do NOT want to use a nonstick pan.
- DON"T OVERCROWD THE PAN
I struggled with this for a while and here is what eventually worked for me:
1. Don't use non-stick.
2. I find a medium to medium-high heat is best but not too hot or too low. On my electric stove, the sweet spot tends to be between 5 and 7, or I end up with burnt on the outside and raw inside or something that is pasty and colorless.
3. Test your oil, I will drop in a drop of something like batter or a tiny piece of meat to make sure it bubbles right away but isn't so hot it starts smoking. I don't tend to use a ton of oil, just enough to coat the bottom of the pan and make things crispy and brown.
4. Don't overcrowd your pan, it will cool down your oil and lead to food that's more steamed than browned.
Hope this helps!
All of these are essential, just one more thing.
Pat meat/fish/poultry dry with paper towels before placing in pan. You should hear a sizzle of sorts, if not your pan is not hot enough. Wait another 60 seconds to add any other pieces of food to place in pan if the first doesn't sizzle.
I've even seen recipes (specifically for skin-on pork belly) that go as far as advocating use of a blow dryer before cooking in order to get a perfect crust.
Now, I'm not going as far as advocating people keep their blow dryer in their kitchen. Just driving home the point that a dry surface is really important.
CI just addressed the drying issue in the most recent issue and said that the juices on wet meat exude and burn before the meat can get browning (and thereby spoil the fond) whereas if it's dry the dry surface will brown easily without burning. I tried it (drying off, which I have seldom done before) on some venison chops on Friday night and was very pleased with the result. Had always thought how the heck am I supposed to make a pan sauce with the blackened stuff left after I slapped the wet meat in the pan and let 'er rip.
In addition to all the other good tips from others, after drying, sometimes a dusting of Wondra or a dip into flour will aid pan searing/browning, with scallops, for instance.
Use the oil of your choice,
but at a certain point add a good nut of butter,
what ever is in the pan will quickly take on the golden hue you seek.
Another thing that might help if you're not already doing it is to bring your protein to room temp before cooking. Sometimes when it's too cold, the temp differential between your pan and the meat can create steam, which also prevents proper browning.