What foods do restaurants pre-cook?
I was watching Food Network's Secrets of a Restaurant Chef and realized that watching Anne Burrell prepare a ham by rubbing lots of mustard on it is hardly a restaurant secret.
Obviously, they can prep soups, sauces, etc, but what about prepping items like risotto? Because, Ive been at high end places where they couldn't have spent 30m cooking it start to finish.
I've heard you can pre-cook risotto about half-way, cool it, and then finish cooking prior to being served. Are any of these truly what some high-end places do? Any other ways restaurants save time through prep work like this?
Risotto is often cooked halfway. I believe it is done this way at the French Laundry, and I know it is done this way at many high end restaurants.
I've worked at a restaurant where all of the meat, save for the hamburger, was cooked sous-vide. And I've worked at a restaurant where nothing was pre-cooked.
I have done this more times than you can count. Parcooked risotto was cooled on sheet pans; at service I'd finish it with stock, wine, pancetta and peas.
Worst ever was ordering a fried egg sandwich at a nameless hotel in Jerusalem, figuring they couldn't F*** it up, but they pre-fried their eggs and stacked them in waxed paper.
That seems to be a Mediterranean thing, not just in restaurants. In a book by James Salter, about his walking tour of a bunch of monasteries in Greece, he mentions several times being fed cold fried eggs from a monastery pantry. I was sold a cold egg-and-spinach panino at a shop in Rome, because it was late afternoon and they'd cleaned and put away the press. The man didn't seem to think there was anything weird about serving it cold, and I must say it was quite good.
Poached eggs are of course the most commonly precooked ones, chilled immediately and then reheated in simmering water. When I worked the pasta booth at Nashville's Italian Street Fair once, under the supervision of a hotel chef, we cooked the pasta al dente and then drained it and dumped it into a pot of cold water, and reheated it as needed. Next to the wine-and-beer booth we were the most popular one there.
re: Will Owen
One thing a restaurant chef will do, that a home chef will not, is keep a pot of boiling water going throughout the evening. There's a time-saver knowing that you have boiling water ready for pasta. I suppose at some point it needs to be replaced, or maybe they just keep adding to it (because of evaporation).
A few others I can think of: Osso Bucco (or any other shank preparations), soups frequently are made ahead of time to develop. Most braises. The foods I've done the most of a la minute are pastas, salad, veal scallops, veg (although those have been blanched, frequently) seafood- and yep, you can keep well-made Bernaise or Hollandaise through service over hot water, covered. Dessert components, always ahead of shift. Frites; pre-blanched correctly and chilled; then held for a last minute fry.
Probably more than you care to know about, and it really depends on the kind (e.g. fast food, chain, etc.) and type of restaurant (French, Mexican Chinese, etc.).
But some common items that are pre-cooked, or at least not cooked to order.
- Cakes and Pies
- Some sauces (e.g. hollandaise sometimes and gravy)
- Stews and pot roasts
- Prime rib
- Steaks and ribs (not all places)
- Prepared salads, e.g. egg salad or potato salad
- Mashed potatoes
Those are the ones that immediately come to mind, but I'm sure there are others.
re: Sal Vanilla
There are reasons why chefs and bakers alike are usu. at their restaurants at the crack of dawn, if not earlier, even if they offer no breakfast service.
If you watch Top Chef, you'll see they always have like 3 or 4 hours to "prep" and then another hour so at the serving locaiton to do the "final prep" for service. That's par for the course, and not just for reality TV.
I know when I worked at my parent's restaurant we would routinely get there at around 7 or 8 am, and our opening time wasn't until 11 am.
Baked potatoes, of course.
Prime rib was always started early, and then new ones were put in the oven through the night, depending on demand. That way we could always serve something close to rare and well done at the same time.
One place served a version of ratatouille where the vegetable stew was kept on very low heat, then dished into serving plates, topped with cheese, and reheated under the salamander.
They also did a baked apple wrapped in puff pastry, where the apple would be cooked separately, and then wrapped in the pastry afterward. That would be tossed into an extremely hot oven to finish.
Never worked at a place where steaks/chops were pre-cooked in any fashion. Not saying it isn't done, just nowhere I've worked.
restaurants generally *pre-pare* as much food as they can. . . and *good* restaurants (without regard to price point) *pre-pare* as much food in advance as they can, *without a loss of quality*
many things are pre-cooked/prepped. most sauces and complex stocks/broths are better when done in larger batches and left for flavors to marry overnight (at least one night)-- then the "mother" sauce can often be used in more than one preparation. it takes several days of prep to make a decent game stock reduction (starting with chicken stock), for instance.
risotto is often prepared up until the final addition of liquid, cooled on sheet pans (sometimes frozen-omg!) and finished to order with fresh vegetables/separately cooked proteins. very high end places do risotto like this because the quality is still very high/indistinguishable from risotto prepared start-to-finish in one go.
obviously things like lasagna and other casserole type things like that are prepped in advance, not made to order, beans, lentils, grains/starches will be batch-cooked and held hot in a steam table, some fresh vegetables may be blanched in large batches and held cold, and finished in a pan for individual service. . . serious butchering takes place before service, a person patties burgers or forms handmade crabcakes or croquettes prior to service, the vegetable garnishes are pre-chopped and held at the ready in a cold line, the dressings, relishes-- these things just aren't done when your server puts your order into the pos. if you order creme brulee, someone is finishing a prepared custard for you (so it's partly to order, partly prepared), but if you order a piece of cake, that item was almost certainly made prior to service, and if it's served warm, it's because someone warmed it, it isn't fresh from the oven :)
some folks seem to have a hangup about fresh-prepared food. . . but i for one don't want a made-to-order "cassoulet," i'll have the cassoulet that was made properly, thanks, and if a server tells me that the soup of the day was really made today, it would be my inclination to ask if there is any of yesterday's soup sitting around, since it will probably taste twice as good!
Some chains precook everything. It's all prepared in a central kitchen in the name of "quality control," then cryovacked in portions and shipped in to heat in a hot bath, plate and serve. I know for a fact that Olive Garden has done this for years. It has to be seven or eight years ago that a friend and I went to the OG in El Paso for lunch. I'm a freak for mussels and they have them on their starters menu, but the last time I'd had them they had too much red pepper in the broth. When I asked for a reduction in the red pepper, the waiter explained they had no control as everything except salads, bread and desserts was shipped in prepackaged. I'm sure OG isn't the only chain that does this. Sous vide makes it even easier. One chef serving many restaurants, and think of how many prep and line cooks never draw a paycheck!
Just as an additional comment, I found a very good recipe in a bistro-foods cookbook for Morue a la Savoyarde, a very simple dish of salt cod, potatoes, onion and some grated Comté cheese. As simple as it is, it requires that the potatoes be parboiled and fried, the fish be refreshed, dried, cut up and fried, the onions be fried, and the assembled dish be sprinkled with the grated cheese, run through a hot oven for ten minutes, then served with a garnish of chopped fresh parsley.
I ran myself ragged making two portions, and then I got it: for a home cook, this is a real exercise, but for a restaurant it's a morceau de gateau: the prep guy in the morning does all the fish, all the potatoes, all the onions, then parcels the stuff out into gratin dishes, where he grates on the cheese, covers each one, stacks them on a cart and rolls it into the walk-in. During the day, when an order comes in they pull however many dishes, run them through the oven, sprinkle on some parsley, et voilá!
It's still worth making, though, even knowing that I could make fifty as easily!
An interesting thread. I wish there was a way for us home cooks to learn all the tricks that restaurants use! It would make entertaining so much easier. The info about risotto is useful. Hollandaise? I am sure it is made in advance (as someone mentioned) but how is it held? Hot or cold? I worked as a prep cook many years ago, and one thing I remember making is whipped cream for the desserts. I made it in very large quantities, and added a bit of gelatin dissolved in water. It kept the whipped cream stable for days, and tasted absolutely fresh. Now, of course, I can't remember the details!
I once came into a restaurant where they prep. cook was explaining to the absentee owner (also a complete and total lunatic) that a leftover tub of jambalaya was gawwwwn; the owner scooped up a bucket of it and when I was walking by shoved it directly under my nose and said, "does that smell all the way down?" It smelled of nothing but iodine at the point and it was many years before I could see, much less eat, Jambalaya again. Things worked much better when he stayed away.
AFIK pasta is usually cooked ahead of time and dunked in hot water just prior to serving.
One higher end place I know of buys their potatoes from Sysco cubed and cooked.
I think you can safely assume that if a dish comes to your table significantly quicker than you could cook it at home, then there's been pre-cooking. Works with any cuisine. Simples.