As far as Cuban food, there is Don Ramon and Havana which are within a stone's throw of each other in West Palm. Both are quite good and Havana is probably better known, but, IMO, you get better food at cheaper prices at Don Ramon.
As far as everything else goes, there are quite a few places that fit what you're looking for in the area. Spend a few minutes on the boards and you'll see the same names coming up over and over. A quick list of good eats that are cheap are Brass Ring (burgers & wings), Tacos al Carbon (Taco Stand), Dona Raquel (mexican), Pizza Girls (NY style oversize pizza) or Anthony's Coal Fired Pizza (coal oven crispy thin crust), The Singing Bamboo (Chinese). If you want great seafood (fresh fish in particular), spend a few extra bucks and go to Leftover's Cafe or The Food Shack (same owner). For breakfast check out Jim's Place.
I usually dine within the West Palm to Jupiter area, but there are a lot of great places down in the Delray Beach area that someone else can probably speak better on than I can. Good luck and let us know how it goes.