East village soup
Little Poland is closer to Beth Israel than Veselka, Ukrainian East Village, or Stage are. I haven't been there lately, so I'm not current on what their best soups are (I live closer to those other three), but it's worth considering.
In terms of Japanese soups, I think soba is more refined than ramen and also often less fatty. Soba-Ya and Soba Koh both have their charms. I've never tried to do takeout from either one, though, and don't even know if you could.
A totally different thought is to get Thai soup (probably Tom Yam Gung or Tom Kha Gai) at Zaab City. Again, I'm not current on them and can't attest to the quality of their soups, but it's worth a thought. If I were sick, I'd absolutely love some tasty, spicy Thai soup, unless my condition militated against spiciness.
Finally, there was another recent thread in which, if I'm remembering accurately, inexpensive lunchtime soups at Hearth were mentioned. I love Hearth, so I think that could really be a cheap luxury! Caveat: I haven't tried the cheap soups and have only been to Hearth for dinner.
B&H for various kosher vegetarian, Veselka for all types of Eastern European soups, not sure if your friend considers ramen soup but there are at least 3 options for that, Rai Rai Ken, Ippudo, and Setegaya. Don't know if they do carry out but your fanciest option would be the $5 soup at Hearth but like I said not sure if they do carry out.