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Unique Australian Foods

I will be taking my first trip to Australia in May and wanted to know what food experiences to expect. I live in California in the United States, so I have experienced many different cultures and excellent food. What I am really looking for are unique foods not typically found in my area.

My trip will be Sydney, Uluru, Cairns, and Melbourne, mainly doing all the "tourist" stuff. I will have a car in Melbourne, but I will be limited to downtown/tourist areas in the other places. I would really like to eat what normal Australians eat, even fast food, junk food, and boring stuff - which is usually not boring to us foreigners.

Ideally, I prefer to avoid fancy restaurants focusing more on local stuff. It looks like I will have many options for kangaroo, emu, ostrich, and alligator, but are there any unique food and drink to look out for?

Thanks for any help you can offer.

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  1. Check out a list of unique Australian Native Products which you may be able to find if you can get to a restaurant specializing in "Bush Tucker" & in some that may use just a few native ingredients. As well as the animals you have listed , you may find Tasmanian possum & wallaby on menus. Look out for the local fish and shell fish like Moreton Bay Bugs. Have fun.

    11 Replies
    1. re: legume

      Even though I will not be in Brisbane, do you know of any good "Bush Tucker" restaurants in Sydney or Melbourne? I am leery of finding real authentic stuff in the tourist meccas of Uluru and Cairns. My guides show some Aboriginal restaurants, but I trust the Chowhounds more.

      1. re: Sacto_Damkier

        About an hour after I posted this, I found a "Bush Tucker" place in Cairns! It looks awesome - Ochre Restaurant & Catering.


        1. re: Sacto_Damkier

          "I would really like to eat what normal Australians eat, even fast food, junk food, and boring stuff - which is usually not boring to us foreigners."

          In all earnestness, real live Australians do not eat like this. We are not an exotic species, just homo sapiens.

          We live in a wonderful country with wonderful produce and it's best eaten with little frippery - stick to fresh produce - seafood by the coastline, get off the beaten track when you can and read these boards for some excellent tips.

          The most prolific commercially grown native plant in Australia is the Macadamia, grown primarily in Nth NSW where you aren't going, but you will have plenty of opportunity to sample.

          1. re: kmh

            kmh is right (in most recent post, won't mention the taipans). You don't have to go Ocker - give the pies a miss, mate! Try the Ochre place in Cairns for the bush tucker experience. Elsewhere, you will find some very good eating places serving world class produce in a range of 'styles'. look for farmed seafood produce like oysters, soft-shelled crabs, mud crab,prawns, barramundi, tuna, salmon (& salmon roe) plus varieties of wild fish. If you eat red meat you will be well catered for... have fun.

            1. re: kmh

              While I am sure that many Australians eat fresh produce and healthy seafood, I am looking for iconic foods or those remembered from childhood. Basically, what is in a suburban kitchen? This is usually not answered well on the Board since posters have much better taste. Thanks for your help anyway.

              I guess I will just have to check out the supermarket to do some investigating. I have learned more about world cultures by going to a supermarket than many museums.

              1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                Also remember Australia is a melting pot of cultures and thus a melting pot of food culture. An Italian families iconic food is going to be very different from a Vietnamese family.

                The strength of Australian food culture is the combination of this very fresh (recent) and vibrant set of influences combined with great natural (food) resources.

                Iconic Australian food is found in the broad range of restaurants across the country where innovative chefs are taking the cuisine's that ate at their own homes, or their friends houses, and reinterpreting them in new ways, yet staying true to the base values (unlike the US version of Italian food). A good book that illustrates this is "Secrets of the red lantern" by Pauline Nguyen.

                Australian food culture is modern, fast paced and innovative. It would be a shame to only look for icons in the past rather than explore the present day.

                1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                  with 160+ ethnic ancestries in this country what do you think is in a suburban kitchen.

                  1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                    If you're going to the supermarket to find the "true Australia" you will be sorely dissapointed - you will find Velveeta, Philadelphia, (Kraft have a huge plant down here) Paul Newman dressings, Heinz ketchup, Old El Paso, Cheerios, ramens galore, sauce packets, Barilla, and dependingon the area, a little Manischevitz section, or polish section, etc...

                    So using your logic, you will find that Australia is surprisingly similar to the USA in terms of food in the supermarkets, even down to the strip malls the supermarkets are in...

                    Why not just focus on eating good food that may or may not be available in the US, but with a different spin...

                    It's not like Mexico where the cuisine is totally different with many different ingredients -

                    1. re: sandra in australia

                      I intend to pursue the good food. My post was not to dismiss the bounty of good food in Australia, but when I travel, I immerse myself in the local population - good and bad - to take back a better sense of the world.

                      In my opinion, supermarkets give a true sense of a country's society since eating is vital to life, and what a country eats - and what a company stocks for people to eat - is very telling. I have found this to be the case from London to Germany to South Korea, even to Texas!

                      Several previous comments were deleted since some people may have read too much into my comments. I did not intend to say, "Australians only eat junk food" or "I do not want to eat good food in a country rich with good food" - but the Internet is notorious for miscommunication. I can get excellent food all over the place, but I prefer to experience the true culture of a new place by seeing what the average person buys in a supermarket.

                      This is significantly different than most posters who are just looking for the best restaurants. I have already found topics that discuss the good restaurants on the board, which is why I did not ask for them.

                      1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                        Another couple of points to think about.

                        First, Australia still has quite a vibrant specialist shopping sector. I found the supermarkets are not as dominant in the marketplace as they are in other countries. As a result you need to look at a broader range of shops to get a feeling for how society operates, and intersestingly this will vary by area depending on the demographics of immigration in that area. Leichart in Sydney's inner west is very cosmopolitan but with an Italian foundation - thus the local supermarket is well stocked with basics but has a poor meat and fresh vegtable selection. This is because of the proximity of AC Butchery and Norton Street Grocers two very old established shops that are now expanding into chains (and modern premisis). Other suburbs will have similar variation.

                        The second point to be consider is how targeted Australian supermarkets are to their demographic. I find that they are much more tightly targetted than equivilant shops in other countries. Therefore the range you will see on he shelves will reflect the ethnicity of the community, their spending power and the local competition (see above).

                        So to get a good perspective will require more than simply checking out the local Coles - if anthropology was that simply anyone could do it.

                        1. re: PhilD

                          I plan on going to the Queen Victoria Market and Sydney Fish Market in addition to the supermarkets. Here in California, we are spoiled rotten with fresh food, and it looks like you guys are blessed as well.

          2. Just get the Tim Tams and skip all the rest.

            3 Replies
            1. re: mlgb

              Looks tasty. I would imagine that Australia still has a lot of ties to Great Britain, especially in the food world. Any other unique brands, especially what Australians eat regularly.

              1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                Be sure to ask for a demo of the "Tim Tam Slam."

              2. re: mlgb

                Yeah.... you will find walls of Tim Tams at the airport. perfect way to spend your remaining AUD.

                For chocolate, I would also add the berry chocos at Haight's.

                In the supermarket, Arnott's Apricot fruit slice biscuit is first pick. Arnott's pretty much occupy the entire snack isle. My second choice is the various chicken flavor chips. it is an acquired taste, though.

              3. can't speak too much for other cities, but meat pies are pretty aussie - just grab a four n' twenty at any old 7-11 or corner store (or buy a pack at the supermarket and pop it in the oven). the beauty of 'meat' pies is that you never really know what kind of 'meat' is in them...

                for a less fast-foody experience, go to dinkum pies, block place, city. (Between Lt collins and collins)

                melburnians are coffee snobs too - we're talking italian espresso-based drinks, not starbucks, brews, or drips. get one at the cellar bar at grossi florentino, bourke st, city; lygon st food store, lygon st, carlton etc. i'm sure plenty of melb folk would be happy to recommend, it's like one of the most hotly contested topics in the city. search this board for the cities you're visiting too.

                6 Replies
                1. re: e_ting

                  Thanks for the info; sounds like meat pies are on my list. I did not know Melbourne was a coffee town, which is good since I will be staying there for several days. Do you know if there are coffees grown in Australia available in these stores?

                  1. re: Sacto_Damkier

                    There are several coffee farms in northern NSW (where the macadamias are!). These are still very much organic and boutique industries and so it's unlikely that the supermarket chains will have picked these up but you never know. a google search of "australian grown coffee" might steer you in the right direction. There are other local coffees independently owned or ground in australia.
                    grinders is now owned by coca cola if anyone tries to convince you it's a boutique coffee.

                    1. re: kmh

                      I think you'll find most of the actual coffee grown in Australia comes from up in Queensland, usually around the Atherton table lands area. We will always struggle to grow good coffee in Australia as the coffee trees prefer elevation. You could try Skybury. There are also several local roasters.


                      1. re: brawlster

                        that may be so, but there are several coffee farms in northern nsw - ewingsdale coffee, black cockatoo for example.

                    2. re: Sacto_Damkier

                      you got me on that one - i know Vittoria (coffee brand) is roaasted in Australia, but I've no idea whether the beans were grown here, and Grossi Cellar Bar uses Vittoria.
                      icoco in south melbourne roasts their coffee in-house
                      coffea at victoria market (prob the most convenient if you're only visiting) also roasts its own.
                      sorry i know i haven't really answered your question - but you've certainly started me on a hunt!

                      1. re: e_ting

                        That would be handy to know. I always try to eat local on trips, and my favorite coffees are from the Pacific areas (Sumatra, Sulawesi, New Guinea). Since I am traveling, coffee beans are not an easy option; I would prefer a brewed local coffee.

                  2. I just did my Melbourne, Uluru, Cairns and Sydney trips in Oct. To me, the australian foods is seafood. so fresh and "cheap" <- relatively. I could not believe my eyes that a fresh seafood entree costs only a dollar more than poultry. I practically had barramundi every day.

                    You gotta check out the sushi roll from convenient stores. It is uniquely aussie. I bought a box (2 roll) and headed to see the penguins at the phillips island. wish there is sth like in the states. dirt cheap and super convenient.

                    Many restaurants count potatoes as greens. I remember ordering a over rice dish and it came with french fries. The rockets salad seems to be quite popular down there. it is virtually THE salad.

                    If you have time in Melbourne, take the streetcar to St Kilda. There is a funky street sorta like the Haights street in SF. but, there is at least four really old style bakeries and some gelato places. I was walking up and down the street at least three times to decide where to take my tea break.

                    Are you going to the Great Ocean Road? There is an aussie bakery with yummy bargain meat pasties and sweets. I was too excited with the food and forgot to take pictures or the store... it was very ordinary looking with some old fashion blue decorations. The counter was on the back side with drinks fridge on the right. There were four tables for customers. It was across from the parking lot of the town. I had breakfast and pack lunch. Hope it is enough info in case you are going. Highly recommend to stay at the Sandpiper Motel at Apollo Bay. It is brand new and better than a hotel.

                    Uluru, I joined the AT King sunset tour with bbq dinner. the only thing i did not enjoy was the kangaroo meat.

                    Carins is extremely touristy. It feels very much like waikiki. For better food variety, Port Douglas is the place to go. For non-seafood theme, I enjoyed the pizza at Mango Tango. The variety and ingredient combination is very different from the typical pizza. I was being told that it is not unique. Aussie are very generous with toppings and their cooking is extremely fusion (in a good way).

                    Are you going to Daintree? To try local tropical fruits, there is fruit tasting (you have to pay) and Daintree ice cream company (only 4 ice cream flavors daily + mango ice).

                    Don't forget to check out the food market at the Sydney fishmarket. both raw and cooked seafood. you can load up with mud crab, sashimi, oysters.... the ginger scallion crab was just heavenly.

                    11 Replies
                    1. re: maoliu

                      > Don't forget to check out the food market at the Sydney fishmarket.

                      An amazing experience is the twice-a-week tour of the Sydney fish market. You have to get up pretty early, but it's an unforgettable experience to see the "reverse auction" action and get up close and personal with enormous tunas and the like! (A photo of me wearing one of those ubiquitous fluorescent safety vests for the tour conjures up some of the best memories of my Australia trip.) Follow that up with a market breakfast of just-off-the-boat fresh fish and your day is set. :-)


                      I also found a fantastic variety of Asian food that is just not available here (Montreal). Look for hearty Malaysian and Singaporean soups like laksa as well as incredibly fresh, inexpensive sushi seemingly everywhere. In Sydney's Chinatown there are also some amazing Hong Kong-style bakeries with cheap, delicious sweets.

                      I second the rec. for St-Kilda, a funky suburb of Melbourne. I think that street an earlier poster was referring to is called Acland. I couldn't believe my eyes - it's lined with an incredible array of cake shops unlike any I've seen elsewhere! Definitely worth a trip.


                      One more thing I just remembered in Melbourne is the *gigantic* Queen Victoria market. They also have a tour, which helps get your bearings - this thing is enormous! One highlight was a stand selling delicious fresh fruit juices of all kinds. http://www.qvm.com.au

                      In the Cairns area, I recommend picking up some "Daintree tea" - a delightful black tea grown in the area that I wish I'd brought home more of.

                      Have a fantastic trip!

                      1. re: maoliu

                        'Many restaurants count potatoes as greens' = this really upsets me. I can't imagine where you were eating.
                        Bush Tucker is a made up concept by white people to try and understadn the way indigenous australians used to live off the bush - shame this board doesn't have more Australians contributing

                        1. re: katea

                          Tis true. Bush tucker denotes food that *could* be eaten if you had to. In other words, survival food, not cuisine one would choose to consume. I recently had the great pleasure of being involved in the production of a cooking show called outback cafe and the Chef Mark Olive hated the phrase bush food because of the bush tucker baggage. He preffered indigenous Australian cuisine.


                          1. re: brawlster

                            John - not certain you are entirely correct. I had understood that a lot of aboriginal people actually enjoy eating their traditional food. Their knowledge of the land and how to live off what at first seems very inhospitable enabled them to live, and thrive, for thousands and thousands of years. Roast Goananna may not be to everyones taste but I don't believe you would call it survival food.

                            1. re: PhilD


                              I think you misunderstand. That was the point I was trying to make. Popular Australian knowledge of bush tucker is that you WOULDN'T eat it unless you had to *live off the land*. I'm saying it can be much more than that and the show I was working on was trying to show just that !

                              1. re: PhilD

                                My indigenous neighbours seem to favour roast lamb.

                                1. re: kmh

                                  I think the point is to actually simply *consider* indigenous Australian produce. I don't mean specifically traditionally aboriginal food, prepared in a traditional way, but simply considering even native grown herbs and spices. We have a native pepper that's sweeter than Chinese / Indian pepper and yet very few of us use it. I've been using roast wattle seed in my pastry for a few years to great effect ! I know of a grower who has been developing a way of using native salt bush as a snack food substitute for crisps.

                                  Like the rest of Australian cuisine, we are great at taking influences from other cuisines and re-interpreting them to make something uniquely Australian. It dawned on me when spending months on the road visiting indigenous communities that I had no idea how many of our native plants and animals can be eaten. Instead we grow predominantly European crops which take far more water than their native equivalents. Of course there needs to be a commercialisation of the crops before they can be used in a sustainable way. But there's is a bounty of native cuisine that is only just starting to work it's way into mainstream Australian consciousness.

                                  1. re: brawlster

                                    Is it easy enough to find indigenous Australian produce? If you knew what to look for, could you simply drive out beyond the suburbs and fill your baskets with wattle seed and native pepper? I love the idea of being able to do that.

                                    1. re: sue zookie

                                      Indeed. I notice the various plants all the time now that I know what they are. It's always going to be of limited interest though because wild harvesting isn't sustainable. IN fact anyone buying native products should looking into the the way the product is sourced. What needs to happen is for the crops to be commercialised. This means selecting the best strains of a given species and then cultivating them. But we're such a small market that it's always going to be a struggle to make production economically sustainable. Especially when the market isn't educated as to the native alternatives out there. There are a few places like Reedy Creek Nursery that are attempting to create the markets that would sustain this kind of cultivation but it's a long road. This is where I've been sourcing some of my native ingredients.


                                      1. re: kmh

                                        I guess the hard part is knowing what to look for.

                          2. Vegemite. Though I am yet to meet an American who likes it, and yet to meet an Australian who doesn't like it, and that pretty much says it all. If you are feeling particularly adventurous, add a slice of cheese to your Vegemite sandwich; this is considered a classic spin on the standard Vegemite sandwich. Or pick up some Kraft Vegemite Singles on your supermarket tour (they are slices of awful processed cheese with the Vegemite already added ... They look disgusting and are disgusting, you should try it)

                            1 Reply
                            1. re: Tsar_Pushka

                              vegemite and butter on a fresh piece of good bread from a good bakery is pretty good!
                              Most americans hate it, I agree, but funnily enough, when we lived in the states my mum would go and help with reading at my brother's school, particularly with the kids who weren't keeping up (to put it politely) and she took some for them to try - they loved it! LOL!

                            2. Interestingly, you'll find a lot of the Thai and noodle restaurants are getting into Australian meats more than your everyday cafes. Stir-fried roo (kangaroo) is all the go and damn fine it is too.

                              Native Australian flavours such as lemon myrtle (a strongly-scented leaf described as "more lemon than lemon") and wattleseed (the seed of the wattle bush which, when roasted and ground, has a glorious hazelnut/chocolate/coffee flavour and scent) are _just_ starting to take off around the place. It's still very early days so you can't walk into any espresso bar and ask for a "wattlecino" (unfortunately) or a lemon myrtle cheesecake, but it's not as uncommon as it used to be, either.

                              You can now buy pre-marinated kangaroo bits in the supermarket - "kanga bangas" (kangaroo sausages; more colloquially known as "skippy snags" :) ) are delicious, as are the little rolled roasts you can pop in the oven.

                              But for the everyday foods that Aussies eat ... well. I notice the Australians on this board are anxiously trying to turn away that damn meat pie'n'sauce stereotype in favour of our glorious fresh mediterranean/asian flavours but let's face it, it's still how we're seen across the planet, for better or for worse. For the moment.

                              And heck, we could just work to combine it all with a kangaroo pie with bush tomato sauce, which would nicely combine all the stereotypes :)

                              As for "iconic" foods - you HAVE to do Vegemite, I'm sorry. Go to a nice beachside cafe in Sydney or Melbourne and get a coffee and freshly-squeezed orange juice and vegemite toast. That is the quintessential breakfast for thousands (if not millions) of us. The person will make it properly for you. Do not chastise the person for the mingy thin uneven spreading of the Vegemite on your buttered toast. You do NOT wish it spread like peanut butter, trust me.

                              For a chocolate-related snack, try Jaffas. Orange-flavoured round chocolate filled things. Why? Just 'cos :). TimTams as also mentioned (they're a chocolate biscuit - "cookie").

                              Noodle soups are fairly big in the cities as food for everyday people - chinese, vietnamese, thai - and asian flavours (note that Indian is a separate cuisine to "asian" around here) are very dominant. Except where we go decidedly Italian (in Melbourne, apparently one of the largest Italian populations outside of Rome).

                              Unique drinks? Can't really think of any; soft drinks ("sodas") are as prevalent here as anywhere else. The names may differ but the contents are much the same. The tap water's generally nice (except in Adelaide). Oh, and the beer is strong (I'm told; I prefer cider myself). Wine is excellent.

                              Pubs serve "traditional Aussie" meals in varying degrees of sophistication. Steak'n'chips'n'salad is hard to go by. Lamb is very commonly eaten here (I hear it's less common the US) and a plate of little lamb chops and some form of potato and salads is hard to beat for a meal.

                              Fish'n'chips on a Sydney beach is a fairly quintessential Australian experience, too, although in May it may be a little cool, depending on which beach it is. Cairns will be lovely. Melbourne will be chilly. Sydney will be variable.

                              Apparently the "Hawaiian" pizza is an Australian preference. We like pineapple and ham on our pizza. Apparently this is reviled elsewhere. Don't understand the revulsion, myself. It's lovely :)

                              I could go on but I should probably stop here for my first post on this board :)

                              5 Replies
                              1. re: eataust

                                FYI we like Hawaiian pizza in California, too.

                                1. re: mlgb

                                  Well there ya go. Don't believe everything you hear :)

                                  I just thought of some serious Aussie junk food - well, I _think_ it's Aussie. Dagwood Dogs and Chicko Rolls. The former is a frankfurter dipped in beer batter and deep-fried, and the latter is a huge deep-fried spring roll thing. Both are served on sticks and provided with plenty of "dead 'orse" (tomato sauce). Personally, *shudder* but all my friends admit to one or the other as their childhood foodie vice, and I haven't read about them in any other books.

                                  1. re: eataust

                                    In the US they call dagwood dogs "corn dogs", though I believe a real corn dog is supposed made from cornmeal batter rather than beer batter or straight batter as is used here. As for Chiko rolls though, they're dinky di Aussie. And yeah I shudder too ...

                                    1. re: eataust

                                      Chiko rolls don't come on a stick, and I've never heard of serving them with tomato sauce (ketchup). But they ARE a treat.

                                  2. re: eataust

                                    Thank you very much for the extensive reply! I am looking forward to my trip, especially with all the great recommendations for food.

                                  3. Try some Caramello Koalas, Tim Tams, chicken chips, twisties, meat pies. In Melbourne check out Degraves Street for coffee, or for food. The Vic Market is awesome, lots of fresh fish and veggies and cheese, there's a place that makes mini gourmet pizzas, I'd recommend those.

                                    3 Replies
                                    1. re: kiwiFRUIT

                                      I was just writing to add chicken chips to the list - my kids were crazy about them. Also, chicken salt (chicken flavored salt) to sprinkle on everything - we brought a bunch back with us, and everyone we gave it to, loves it.

                                      I liked the Doner kebabs (I ate them all the way down the coast, from the Great Barrier reef to Sydney) and spicy wedges with chili and sour cream, too. We all liked the Bundaberg ginger beer (Bundy and Rum in a can was pretty good, too) and lemon lift (kind of like Squirt). My husband went crazy for the bacon - thick sliced with the loin still attached in most places.

                                      1. re: jeanmarieok

                                        If you are talking about the every day foods australians eat then you have to include a couple of things for sure, particularly as far as Melbournians, ( and it's pronounced Mel-bun, not Mel-bourne) are concerned. The first is the meat pie. The humble meat pie can range in quality from something truly terrible to something that is truly lip smacking wonderful. At the risk of alienating any of my fellow countrymen, I prefer these delicacies of the commercial kind, some of the most common being brands like Four and Twenty or for a special treat try a Mrs Mac's Big Country Meat Pie out of the pie warmer at a convenience store. Make sure it's hot but still soft to the touch and the pastry isn't hard and overcooked as thats a sure sign it's been in the warmer too long.

                                        On the other hand we also have something called a dim sim. I can't believe nobody has mentioned these yet. They are something like a steamed or fried chinese won ton or pot sticker, but bigger. The best examples of these by far are to be had at the South Melbourne Market, they are a true melbourne icon and i don't think they would dissapoint. They are made out of minced pork and other assorted goodies and can be had steamed of fried and you would almost always douse them in liberal quantites of soy sauce. There is one particular stall at the South Melbourne Market that is famous for these but as I am a country boy and don't get down there that often I can't explain exactly where it is, perhaps some others could help? Oh and while you are there grab a fried spring roll as well, you taste buds will thank you.

                                        This is of course assuming that the true local everyday aussie experience is what you are after, cause truthfully most of us don't often partake in roo burgers or other indigineous type fare.

                                        Also try the Schwepps brand Traditional soft drinks (sodas) especially the traditional lime and the raspberry varieties. And remember when you say lemonade down here your'e talking about Sprite or 7 Up or similar. Good uncarbonated homestyle lemonade can only be had if you make it yourself or visit the US grocery store for some Country Time or Crystal light, more's the pity. Melbourne is a great place, wer'e unprententious and like a good time and it is a true foodie city.

                                        1. re: advick

                                          I'm surprised no one has mentioned these traditional items from a bakery, lamington's, vanilla slices and neenish tarts.

                                          I know expats that have gone stir crazy for a Vanilla Slice in the US. As with anything, they can range from the tacky to the sublime.

                                          Espresso coffee as someone mentioned is big here with many fine local roasters (usually using imported beans)
                                          If you'd like to find out where the good coffee is http://coffeesnobs.com.au/YaBB.pl

                                    2. for info on pies:


                                      Vanilla Slices:


                                      A brief discussion on the history and evolution of Australian foods:


                                      And Coles is now stocking a range of **sigh** "Bush Tucker" foods, predominantly chutneys and marinades.

                                      And as I have said before, you have to love a country that eats both the animals on its Coat of Arms!

                                      1 Reply
                                      1. re: purple goddess

                                        That reminds me that one of our founding fathers, Benjamin Franklin, wanted to have the turkey as the symbol of the United States instead of the bald eagle. That change would have made our Thankgiving dinners very patriotic, maybe? I do plan on eating both the kangaroo and emu while in Australia.