Amazing Coffee House Down Under?
I think that NZ does consitently the best coffee I have ever had, so you'll be in for a treat, my tips would be
Auckland - Atomic
Wellington - Cafe L'Affare
Queenstown - Joes Garage
Tauranga - Bravo
Whakatane - The Bean
If you want tips for bars too
Melbourne - Supper Club
Adelaide - Apothecary 1878
Am presuming you're American with your very broad request - as per the other posters - we got big countries down here! It's like saying ' what coffee is good in the US?'.
In Sydney the best coffee, and widely aggreed as such - is Campos coffee in Newtown - tiny little place - but the beans are to die for - Aussie foodies aggree - http://www.eatability.com.au/au/sydne... - enjoy!
Coffee in the big Australian cities is generally amazing. Most areas/streets will have a great place or three. They hot places change as the baristas move around, but the good ones are generally quite consistent. What to look for? During the week look for them to be very busy in the morning. At weekends look for really busy breakfast service (until 12:00ish). The crowds are discerning and quite fickle if its is good it is busy, if it isn't busy it ain't good.
What do you mean by crazy location? Lot of cafes are in great people watching areas, and are good places o relax an watch the city. If you want beach side coffee places like Bronte have good spots (as others have said it is a big place).
The exceptions to this rule are two chains - Starbucks and Gloria Jeans - avoid like the plague - enough said
Melbourne is considered Australia's coffee capital, it has strong European influences due to a large influx of Italian and Greek migrants several decades ago. There are more cafes and restaurants in Melbourne per capita than most cities in the world and you will see that a good coffee is easy to find. When Australians drink coffee, they expect espresso... Short blacks, Long Blacks, Caffe Lattes, Cappucinos and macchiatos. Most Americans drink black coffee - so you would probably order a long black (a shot of coffee topped up with hot water). Most Aussies would order a caffe latte (which we abbreviate to latte) which is a shot of coffee topped with frothed milk. In Melbourne's CBD there is a cafe called Degraves in Degraves Lane that is known for FANTASTIC coffee, but wherever you stay just ask around, there are too many to list... We would be talking hundreds of good quality places.
Sydney will have heaps too, and Byron Bay certainly has good coffee. Adelaide has a local 'chain' called Cibo (I think) run by an Italian family that serves quite good coffee too.
As for the other capitals, I haven't been to Brisbane lately but they have a growing food scene that I am sure is supported by good coffee... Darwin is so multicultural, but from memory coffee wasn't a stand out (too hot up there anyway) and I haven't been to Perth or read much about coffee there... Australia's big, so if you know what city you are going to it will help narrow things down. Have a great time and enjoy your stay.