Infused Oils....DANGER! Will Robinson!
OK Hounds, just think of the robot warning Will about the DANGER in Lost in Space**.
I am concerned that I have no robot to warn me about making infused oils.
Please tell me your food science, tips, techniques for infusing oils with:
3. any leafy herb
4. seeds like cumin, fenugreek, cardamom
5. woody herbs like rosemary
6. your favorite
Best type of oil to use? Strain or not strain? Fridge or no fridge? Sterilize bottle or no (OK even I know that one).
A couple of other threads on infused oils seemed to peter out with unanswered queries.
Thanks! (no evil Dr. Smith need apply)
I think you need to avoid moisture, which could lead to spoilage - don't squeeze your garlic, in other words, but put peeled cloves in whole and let the oil dissolve the volatile flavors. Any dried or woody herb is a good candidate, and again don't crush any green leaves. The only infused oil I make regularly is chile oil, using olive oil (any, really) as the base. I tend to flounder around and try different combinations - crushed dried red peppers, chipotles, pasillas, arbol. I have a bag of dried pepper strands, like pepper hair, I got from Surfas in Culver City, and I chop and pound some of those. I put everything into a pint jar - just washed well and dried, really - and top up the oil and close it, and put it in a cool, dark corner of the kitchen counter. Then, every day or so, I turn it over, give it a good shake, and after a week start using the oil, replenishing as I go, until the flavor starts going flat.
People have been doing this since long before either sterilization or refrigeration. Oil is a pretty good preservative, again as long as you keep loose moisture out. If I had any kind of fruit or high-moisture vegetable in there, I would certainly refrigerate it.
Anything that comes from the ground (garlic!) left in oil has a potential risk for botulism. You should boil the garlic in the oil for a minute before doing whatever you do with it. Also acidify the mix if you can and store it in the frig for safety. Never store it at room temp, as room temp combined with zero oxygen is exactly what botulism wants.
Any other infusions that you make should definitely be refrigerated.
My understanding is that for infused garlic oil one must acidulate the garlic -- boil it in vinegar for a few minutes. Pierce each clove several times with the point of a knife to allow the vinegar to get into the inside of the clove. But don't take my word for it -- do some careful research on making infused oils, preferably from a scientific/food chemistry source.
re: maria lorraine
well hounds, i guess i should have just done a google search in the first place:
Thank you, WIll Owen, NeNePie, and maria lorraine!
Alton Brown, the host of "Good Eats," on the Food Network, did a show (or a part of a show--I can't remember which) on infusing oils. He was quite enthusiastic about it, with one exception: garlic. He recommended just buying commercial oil infused with garlic because he said that homemade garlic infused oil was notorious to containing botulism. There was no explanation given as to why garlic was so much more dangerous than other spices, herbs, etc. It was just a throwaway comment, before he proceeded to show the viewers how to infuse oil. So NeNePie's October 19, 2007 comment seems reasonable.
A book that you might want to take a look at down the line is Essential Flavors by Leslie Brenner and Katharine Kinsolving. It gives lots of ideas for infused oils and vinegars, and then recipes for using them. For the infused oils, it includes recipes for making oil with thyme, basil, mint, tarragon, rosemary, chives, orange, pink peppercorns, lemon, curry, cumin, ginger, shallots and roasted garlic.
It does include the roasted garlic. I wonder if they get around the botulism possibility by roasting the garlic first.
The book is probably out of print but used copies should be easy to track down.
A friend gave me two large bottles of olive oil for Christmas. I immediately put them in the fridge because I was not going to get to them for awhile and I did not want the oil to go rancid. One is infused with garlic and the other with rosemary. I learned a few weeks back that leaving garlic in olive oil can be very dangerous so I am afraid to use either of these oils now and yet I have resisted dumping them both out.
I understand the olive oil containing the garlic may contain botchulism. Is there any way to test for this? Can I do anything to make this a safe oil again? Is the roesmary oil also growing botchulism or soemthing else harmful?
I know I should just toss them both, but she bought very expensive oil and I would really like to use it if it's at all possible to ensure its safety.
Botulin toxin is the problem, so there is no way you can make contaminated oils safe again. As to the ones you have, I can't tell you. If the oil had been heated sufficiently in preparing the infusion to kill the bacteria before they could breed, you'd be fine. Otherwise, you couldn't pay me to use the stuff. Botulism is scary. Think systemic botox treatment -- like not being able to move your eyebrows isn't enough.
Hi. Regarding your comment about heating the oil. I was wondering if it is possible to "cook" olive oil with different things (raspberries & basil--just one idea) then to strain if and bottle it. If it is hot and cooks in the flavors, will it still have the bacteria since it has been strained?? I hope this isn't a stupid question....I just think the possibilities are endless....BUT I want to make sure what I am making is safe! THanks!
Why don't you just make a little infused oil when you need it? If it's fresh, you won't kill your family. The problem with infused oils that are stored is that they provide the perfect anaerobic environment to grow botulism. And remember, two of the four strains grow in the refrigerator.
Making infused oils is alot like home canning. There's alot to know, and if you make a mistake, the consequences are dire. You don't see alot of garlic oil in the grocery store anymore, do you? It's because the FDA has made the rules about it's manufacture almost too stringent to follow. So if the professionals are having trouble making it safely, do you want to risk trying?
If proper actions are taken, there is no reason you can't keep infused oils around and there is no reason you can't make your own.
Just so there is no doubt I went out and got 4 site recommendations for preventing botulism. Here they are.
“Botulism can be prevented by killing the spores by cooking at 121 °C (250 °F) for 3 minutes or providing conditions that prevent the spores from growing.”
“Pressure cook these foods at 250 F (121 C) for at least 30 minutes.”
“Store oils infused with garlic or herbs in the refrigerator.”
“Oils that are infused with garlic or herbs should be refrigerated.”
“Botulism neurotoxin is destroyed by high temperatures (85 degrees C (185 degrees F) for five minutes)”
While commercially canned goods are required to undergo a "botulinum cook" at 121 °C (250 °F) for 3 minutes, and so rarely cause botulism, there have been notable exceptions
So in summary: Sterilize your glassware. Do a "botulism cook" at 250 degrees F (121C) for 30 minutes (just to be sure) and store your infused oil in the refrigerator.
I hope to make my own truffle oil so if I do it wrong and you don't see anymore posts from me, try not to celebrate.
re: Hank Hanover
re: Hank Hanover
Here's a link to smoke points for various oils: http://www.goodeatsfanpage.com/collec... Might be helpful in choosing an oil for your experiment.
Somewhere on Chowhound there's a thread about oil and pressure cookers/canners and why it's a really bad idea. The Mayo Clinic link is referring to the proper method of pressure canning low acid produce and foods and while some home pressure canned foods contain a little oil or grease, they certainly don't come close to being an infused oil.
185F is the temperature where pasteurization takes place and liquids are recommended to be held at that temperature for 5-15 minutes (depending on the liquid) in order to pasteurize them fully in the home kitchen. A 65 degree difference between 185F (pasteurization) and 250F (botulinum cook) of two of your sources is a pretty huge difference. Too big a difference for me to feel comfortable.
When I make small batches of infused oil with fresh ingredients the oil is just warm enough to release the flavors from the ingredients. I find temperatures higher than that tend to either release bitter/acrid components in the ingredients or just plain fry them.
"While commercially canned goods are required to undergo a "botulinum cook" at 121 °C (250 °F) for 3 minutes, and so rarely cause botulism, there have been notable exceptions"
I don't think I want to be one of those "notable exceptions". I'll continue to do infused oils in small batches that can be used quickly.