Having just put my latest load of biltong-to-be in the fridge (where it sits for the next 24 hours in a marinade) I thought I'd share a simple recipe for this delicacy.
Given that various South African deli's in the US are charging $16 and up per pound for the stuff - I'm busy converting about $15 in total's worth of butcher-bought eye round, into approximately $45 - $60 dollars worth of reasonable biltong.
I'm terminally lazy, so here's the lazy method of making a totally superior-to-jerky snack (as well as an awesome way to preserve meat for long periods of time).
excuse my totally unscientific measurement methods. Given that biltong was/is being made by farmers without much in the way of hitech anything - you can't really go wrong with biltong, provided you do the 24 hour marinade. And each batch you come up with, you'll decide how to tweak ingredients and add your own bits and pieces - from chilli to garlic..
here's my lazy method:
small pinch of baking soda
splash of white vinegar and/or malt vinegar if you have it.
splash of Worcester sauce
generous pinch of ground black pepper
tiny pinch of salt
healthy big pinch of crunched up whole coriander
chunk of eye round meat
Cut it with the grain, into inch-and-a-bit thick slices.
Put meat slices into a plastic container, along with the above ingredients, and
layer the meat along with ingredients until every thing's covered.
(If you want it spicy, add chilli at this point)
Swirl it around in a few hours, mix it up so that the meat gets the ingredients.
Let it sit for 24 hours. Make some 'S' shaped wires, and select a place to hang the
stuff (you don't want any flies to have access to it)
After 24 hours
Poke holes in one end of the meat, hang the meat up (put some newspaper down to catch the initial dripping). And make sure the bits are not touching each other as they hang.
Then leave it alone.
Again, you don't want any flies or insects (or animals) to have access to the area.
The meat'll start to blacken (and thus start to become biltong) within about 2 -3 days. You'll notice it shrinking in size, this is why you made such large wedges to begin with. After about 5 days or so, you'll have fairly tasty (and totally safe) biltong to snack on.
The inside will be dark or slightly pinkish. (Some purists use salt petre (sp?) to keep the pinkness, but I couldnt be bothered..
Once you've reached the 4-5 day mark, experiment and slice off some into thin strips and nibble. The longer its left, the harder it'll become.
Get a sharp knife and start cutting it into thin slices.
For storage, plastic isn't good - apparently the stuff needs to 'breathe' somehow, so I usually slice it up and store it in brown paper bags in the fridge. It seems to keep for a long time - like weeks and months. It changes color over time, in the fridge, but I still eat it without any problems.
Usually it takes me about 10-15 minutes to slice up meat, grab ingredients and mix it all up and stash it to marinade - so its not a major endevour to do.
I've heard about folks getting mold on their biltong, but have never had this problem myself. Apparently a wipe down with vinegar can kill the mold if its caught early.
Depending on whether I've gone crazy and used too much coarse black pepper, I sometimes wipe the biltong down ahead of cutting, using vinegar - and then letting it dry again, before slicing it up.
Given the US palate - be advised that biltong isn't a 'sweet' taste at all - unlike jerky, which I've noticed sometimes, to be almost sugary (in my view). I'm sure one can tweak biltong to have a sweeter component - but its a salty non-sweet taste to begin with..
Hope this is of use to folks who've either heard of biltong, or who enjoy jerky, and want to taste its superior cousin :) Or alternatively, those of you who go hunt things, and want to store meat in a tasty edible way that folks have done in South Africa for hundreds of years..
Attaching a pic of one of my biltong loads, hanging up and almost done.
Note the coloring - the two pieces on the left are 'natural' (for my partner who can't handle spicy) and the rest of the biltong pieces have a thick covering of chili, giving them a faintly orange tint (because I enjoy very very very spicy food, something that I've yet to encounter here in the US to the levels I'm used to).
The 'pinch of baking soda' was a new addition for me, I tried it because according to my very South African father its to 'make the biltong softer' - but after cooking up a tiny piece of the marinading meat - and getting a nasty bitter undertaste that made me think 'hmmmm - what's this going to do to the biltong taste eventually' - I washed out the marinating meat and redid it, WITHOUT the baking soda.
So anyone experimenting, don't do the 'pinch of baking soda' - and you'll have fairly decent biltong for certain..
sorry about that.. D'oh.
Here's a pic of the hanging meat on DAY TWO
(It's beginning to darken and dry out - which is exactly what
one wants. There's no mold or anything 'icky' to worry about.
This is precisely how things should look at this point.
It's en route to becoming very tasty biltong.
(Please excuse the background of coat hangers,
I'll remove them for the next pic tomorrow :)
NOTE: Do NOT try this with meat that you haven't marinated
according to the above simple recipe. I would imagine that 'regular'
meat would rapidly become spoiled if simply hung up - so this is
the way prepared and marinaded meat behaves - NOT regular store-bought
Here's a pic of the hanging meat on DAY THREE.
As you can see, it's almost entirely lost the 'meat' look - and its
clearly halfway towards looking like decent biltong.
I love the fat parts of the biltong, I've left the fat on, and its become
a lot more visible now that the meat is turning into biltong. But obviously
if you're not into yummy biltong-fat, then you just trim the fat off before
you even start.
The useful thing at this part, as it continues to dry and blacken nicely, is that it becomes harder and harder for the meat to 'spoil' in any way, ditto the worry over
flies and bugs laying eggs - because now there's a hard exterior of biltong, and its
the interior of the meat that's still technically 'meat'. It's fairly protected now, in other
words. In a day or two (three at most) the internal part of the meat will have properly become biltong.
I'll take a side view close pic of the biltong tomorrow, to show the thickness of the wedges. (If you cut your meat too thin to begin with, you'll end up with mostly pretty hard biltong of the 'snap sticks' genre. In other words its just the 'skin' of the biltong - whereas what you want is the 'skin' and the 'flesh' in combo.
As you can see, its a pretty simple process. It had to be, in order for the original Afrikaner farmers in the 1600's and onwards, making it while journeying through Africa, and using it as a valuable source of protein.
During the Anglo-Boer war, when the Afrikaners fought the British Empire, a pocketful of biltong was what the Boer (farmers) were mostly living on, for weeks at a time. So don't underestimate the nutritional value of the stuff.
There's a LOT of different recipes, and every biltong maker has their own version of ingredients - but this is my basic one, which delivers fairly decent basic biltong without any frills, and which can be done fast. Obviously if you can get your hands on some butcher's 'biltong spice' it'll probably taste even better than this simple version.
I'll add the next pix tomorrow - and keep adding, each day, all the way to the best part, the harvesting and slicing of the biltong.
re: ali patts
Okay well, I'm not sure how the flesh of duck/ham works when drying or being hung. As regards the biltong, its in this little room that I work and write in - and there's an alcove that used to be a pseudo closet (as could be seen by the coat-hangers)
But its fairly open - although as the temperatures here in Boston are rising, I've lowered the fly screen on the window, to prevent bugs from getting at it.
Bear in mind the stuff has sat in a fridge for 24 hours in a vinegar/salt/black pepper marinade - which probably influences how the meat behaves. I've made maybe 10 or 15 loads of biltong thus far, and no spoilage at any point.
If you're getting irregular results, perhaps there's some sort of preparation you should do with the meat, before the hanging, to kick start your process, maybe?
re game biltong. Mmm, love it, the African variety at least is delicious - much
saltier than regular biltong - especially ostrich, which makes a very tasty biltong.
Here's a pic of the biltong on DAY FOUR.
As can be seen, if one looks closely, there's almost no 'meat' look
left to the biltong - it's uniformly black, in other words, en route to perfect biltong.
At this point, the two pieces on the left seem to be almost ready for
'harvesting' - slicing up and storing - and the other pieces 'feel' almost
ready, but I'll give it another day, and then post close pix as I wade in and start the slicing up part of some of the pieces.
I'm usually too eager and start slicing it too soon, and then have to wait a day or so for the process to continue. Technically it feels like a couple of the pieces are ready - but I'll do my first slicing on day Five.
Understand that you can't get sick from it, if its not quite ready - because its not 'raw meat' anymore, it's 'biltong' - just very soft biltong.
The longer one leaves it, the harder it gets - and depending on your own tastes, you can enjoy it 'wet' or 'dry' - I tend to like it somewhere between the two. So by day Five, a few pieces will be as ready as I like it - and the remainder will be good to slice up on Day Six at the latest.
The pieces that are least ready, are the very fatty ones - as this slows down
the transformation into biltong.
At this point though, it's essentially biltong now - and it won't spoil or rot from here on, and the outer 'skin' is too hard to allow bugs or flies to cause any damage - except for the fatty pieces.
And just to allay any fears - its not meat anymore, and doesn't behave like regular 'raw meat' would.
But for hunters or the folks wanting to store meat in a useable eatable form that doesn't require any cooking, its the perfect technique.
Tomorrow should hopefully be the slicing and nibbling day. I'll post pix.
Dear TheFamine, I have to tell you I was really skeptical when I first saw the process in the beginning. Thank you for recording and showing us the pictures, it's really an education for me.
Loving good jerky and swearing to all family members that I am going to buy my own dehydrator since I keep asking for one for Christmas, birthdays and the like and not getting one, I'm pretty impressed with the method you've provided and the results so far.
I have not heard of biltong until now, and the fact that you grate the finished product and use it as a topping is intriquing to me as well. I have to ask, is there any smell going on while this meat is drying, and if there were to be, would that be your indicator that the meat drying process had failed?
I know I need to get over my squeamishness (word?) because I am so sure that if I saw how cheese and fish sauce was made I run screaming from the building. But I love those things too!
Bluntly putting it. How do you know it is not spoiled or would it be that obvious and the question moot?
And can you make biltong with a dehydrator or a slow method using a convection oven?
re: chef chicklet
Well, you can grate the product when its done, and use the powder, or gnaw away at big slabs of it and play caveman and eat it that way - or do the genteel thing and slice it into thin slivers and use it as the ultimate tasty snack.. A casual search online will show a lot of different ways to use the product when its ready. And everyone has their own ways of eating biltong, what kind of taste they want to give it, as well as how they use the end product. Having a tasty dried meat that doesn't spoil, and which can be incorporated into other foods, is pretty useful.
I've heard mention online about biltong only 'keeping' for a few weeks or a month or so - but currently, I'm still sitting with biltong in the fridge from a few months back, that's fine to eat. I think the folks in wet and damp climates have to struggle to make it and keep it.
Re making it with a dehydrator or convection oven. Well, if you do a search on 'biltong box' - you'll see there're a number of businesses online that are selling what they suggest is a perfect way to 'make' biltong. it usually boils down to a closed box, with a horizontal hanging rack, and a bare lightbulb, which provides some warmth and thus apparently helps dry the biltong.
But as you can see, depending on the climate you're in - this isn't actually needed. I suspect its more for folks in Europe, with its traditionally wet and damp weather, than for the climate in the US.
re smells - well the first smell you'll have is a vinegar smell, which comes from the meat having been soaking for a day in the mixture. Thereafter, that fades in a day or so, and then there's only a faint 'meat' smell - which isn't unpleasant at all - and gradually the smell of 'biltong' emerges, which is a fairly distinctive smell. Sort of a vinegar-cured meat smell, akin to the smell of the meat section in a good deli, with salami's and other dried meat products.
There's no real smell that would indicate spoiling - of course if you hang meat without marinating it, naturally I guess there'd be quite a vile smell within a few days - clear evidence of rotting. But biltong - if it does spoil, and I'm thinking back to occasional store-bought examples in South Africa, as I've never had any mold, rot or spoiling with my home made version - it'll be very visible as a mold on the outside of the meat.
From what I've read online, if its caught early enough, a good solid wipe with a vinegar-soaked cloth will take care of that. And also if its only on one piece, and you're squeamish, throw it out. One needs to understand that biltong is a SOLID thing, it's not raw meat (even though it is) - and once the process starts, the 'raw meat' interior diminishes and disappears and is replaced by the biltong, which is an almost 'soft plastic-like' texture at first, which then slowly hardens. Any mold or rot, usually appears just on the surface, and can be seen immediately. It'll look whitish, and utterly not like the various pix I've shown here.
Be advised that animals go CRAZY for this stuff. It seems to totally push hidden buttons in most dogs, if you give them a taste of it - and they'll turn into serious thieves, given the chance. This is normal behavior - and in South Africa, folks are used to having to hide the biltong away from animals - but here where this isn't known, you could end up having your stash demolished by a previously well-behaved cat or dog, if you don't take precautions :)
As I was hungry earlier, I cut a small piece off one of the hanging segments - and it was mostly 'proper' biltong, but the interior was still midway between 'meat' and 'biltong' - I'm attaching a close pic of the cut piece of biltong to show what it looks like when the process is still underway. I'll take another close pic tomorrow of the same cut segment, and you'll see how the 'meat' interior dries, blackens and turns to biltong.
Note on the close views, especially the very close one - how a small segment of the meat on one side of the cut has already become 'biltong' in the proper sense of the word, black in other words - whereas the remainder is still 'turning' into biltong.
Don't let the pinkish look fool you, its not 'raw meat' any more, its what I guess could be called 'very wet biltong'. Its quite edible at this point (which is why I cut a little bit off to nibble on) - but in another day or two at most, it'll be black, rather than pink, as it dries out further - and then it will be technically 'ready to eat biltong'. And simple to slice up, or grate or whatever.
I don't think the biltong can 'spoil' at this point - I would imagine the danger points are within the first 2 days mainly, as one's hanging raw meat that's been marinated - and once the flesh has hardened and dried, it becomes rapidly more difficult for any parasites, bugs or flies to contaminate the biltong-to-be.
re: Sam Fujisaka
If you're in a seriously humid area - I've heard tell of folks putting a fan on to blow directly at the meat, which can both help with drying, as well as keeping any bugs off. I was wondering if the fridge might be a viable 'plan b' - but again, most techniques I've heard, require some airflow around the meat - so I wouldn't recommend the fridge method.
Experiment a bit, and maybe (as I did when I first started making my own biltong) I tried different recipes and divided the meat up into three different approaches - in order to see what seemed to work best.
Perhaps divide up your first load of meat, and place in different area's, to see which gives you the best result by day 3 or so?
Ultimately, recipe-wise, I soon realized that no matter what fiddly route I took, I'd always end up with biltong :) The only 'for certain' thing needed, is that 24 hour marinade in your fridge - as well as a stirring up of meat and spices and liquid at some point during the 24 hour period. Thereafter, hang the suckers up, and you'll get biltong.
Initially, I didn't marinade the meat for long enough - and ended up with a very bland-tasting biltong, so the marinade is important to give it the taste and bring out the proper flavor.
If you're a spicy food fan, this is the time to add whatever spices you want the end biltong to taste of.. (be careful with chili, I've been too enthusiastic in the past, and ended up with biltong that was almost unpleasantly spicy)
Gosh from the pictures, it almost looks like pastrami, or a procuitto doesn't it.
So I am going to go out on a limb here, it is not like beef jerky, where I'll have to put it under my saddle, ride on it a few days to prep it for consumption?
Thanks again, I am finding this hugely different and interesting.
I live midway Central Valley and Bay Area. We can get some really dry hot days. But lately some humidity, so I would seriously be checking the weather channel for the 5 day forecast.
re: Sam Fujisaka
Oh yes Los Banos! Tracy's weather, yes I know. Usually we have dry & high heat, but as of late humidity which we're not used to.
But I think I am going to give this a try since I didn't get my dehydrator. I am trying to figure out in my garage. I have a little cooking setup in the 3rd car area, and across from my husbands home gym. I've been eyeing his Smyth system, the bars are looking pretty tempting... heh heh.
No, I've only experimented with whats known in the US as 'eye round' (mainly coz that was one of the types of meat suggested on various south african forums as being an approximate equivalent to the biltong in SA).
I have eyed various meats in supermarkets - things like bison for instance, I think its called.I haven't seen much general 'game' meats in the stores I've been in.
I've read somewhere that 'pork/ham' type of meats don't work too well as biltong - but I'm not sure. I'd imagine that pretty much any type of animal should be able to be turned into biltong (with apologies to the vegetarians among us :)
Thing is, biltong and biltong-making is hundreds of years old - and there are serious purists with the stuff, who say only this or that type of meat is good enough, and that the meat should be carefully stripped of sinew ahead of time, and countless other tweaks - never mind the minefield of which spices to add. There are hundreds if not thousands of different recipes, each delivering a subtly different kind of biltong. So my lazy method is a fairly simple and not especially tweaked or sophisticated version.
But looping around - I'm pretty sure that if you have a form of meat, as long as the cuts of meat are with the grain, and that you marinade it, you'll be able to create biltong.
Hmm, ostrich meat.. hmmm. Haven't seen that in stores anywhere (at least here in Boston) that would be an interesting experiment..
The real thing that I wish I had the skills to do, is make the dried sausage that's sold along with biltong, known as 'droe wors' (pron. 'drewer vors' - Afrikaans for 'dry sausage') now that's a truly tasty snack.. But it'd require casings and perhaps a local butcher to mix up ingredients..
The ostrich was good, a big salty hunk of meat you could gnaw on for hours with a nice cold mug of Castle lager! I remember those dried droewors also really enjoyed hand made boerewors sauage and lamb sosatis. No wonder the South Africans have such a high rate of heart disease, they love their meat! Thanks for your describing your method!
Link to droewors with pics:
Wow, thanks so much for posting this. I haven't had biltong in over 20 years but I loved the stuff the year I spent in South Africa--sliced thin on a hard roll with butter--lecker as they say. I love that you address the fatty slices--I like those best. I'm going to print and save your directions--I'll need to think about where I can do this and get airflow away from the cats.
Okay, we're up to DAY FIVE.
Here's two pix. One is the overview as usual, showing the biltong.
If you compare the sizes of the meat in the sequential pix thus far, you'll see the gradual shrinkage that occurs, as the meat turns into biltong.
Usually things will shrink by anywhere from 30% to 50% of their original size. This is quite normal - but it also demonstrates why one should make reasonably thick slices of meat to begin with, otherwise you'll end up with biltong thats more 'skin' than 'flesh' (although they're the same thing) The 'skin' biltong would just be too hard and not a lot of fun to gnaw at. But again, its all about individual tastes.
The second pic - is a close up on the section of biltong that I cut off yesterday. Again, if you compare yesterday's pic - to todays - you can see the way that the exposed area has 'sealed' itself and continued turning into biltong. No spoiling, and it simply doesn't behave like I'd imagine untreated meat would.
Technically its probably almost ready - but I'm going err on the side of caution and only harvest (slice up) the stuff tomorrow. Unless of course hunger and the fun of taking pix to demonstrate the process, gets the better of me :)
Hope this ongoing experiment is of use - just to demonstrate that one doesn't need expensive materials, ovens or dryers, to deliver a tasty food/snack.
I'll update as I progress towards the final steps, and show pix detailing what the slicing looks like, and the sliced product - so that there's clear visuals covering every step of the biltong experience :)
I should point out that any 'debris' or 'stuff' visible on the surface of the biltong, in these close pix - are spices left from the marinade.. So its dried chili, black pepper and roughly ground up whole coriander (I was too lazy to brown the coriander).
Most of this excess spice will be shaken off during the cutting up, and end up at the bottom of the storage container or bag.
Anyway - I just thought I should mention it, in case folks wondered.
Next pix either later day, or tomorrow :)
As it got too hot and I needed a salty snack, I used up two of the pieces of biltong and sliced them up.
Here's a series of pix showing the slicing. My camera decided not to focus properly here and there, but it still shows the quite simple end process.
As you can see, they're still technically what's called 'wet' biltong - but utterly tasty and safe to eat.
Thanks so much for posting this. I have visited South Africa a few times and always make a beeline for some biltong but it never really occurred to me to make my own. I suppose I was worried about the 'raw meat' factor...but as you say, if it worked for Boer farmers in the 1600s it really should be fine.
I'm going to give this a go!
And here's the remainder of the 'early harvesting' of the two biltong pieces. The rest, it looks like, should hopefully be ready to roll tomorrow - I'm leaving them longer as they're either much thicker, or contain a lot more fat - which slows the process down a little..
Keep in mind these sections are 'wet' biltong, so the interior is soft and chewy, and there's a nice 'greasiness' to it - which might not be to everyone's taste - whereas in a day or so, it'll be harder and more firm (and thus a lot less like 'flesh').
When I harvest the remainder, I'll post pix of that biltong, to show what regular semi-'dry' biltong looks like.
Excellent effort and detail on this post, TF. The pics also add a lot of good context.
This looks like really good stuff. My previous efforts with dried strip-meat have only been thin-sliced (1/8" max) jerky, dried to a baaarely flexible hardness to ensure a longer shelf life. The softer-centered biltong seems fascinating.
Coincidentally, just last week NBC's Today Show "Where in the world is Matt Lauer" placed him in Capetown, and showed a chef slicing some finished biltong. I was fascinated by a "jerky" that is soft enough to slice. Her strips were cut along the grain, and roughly columnar pieces 1" on all sides, which she then sliced across grain for service. To achieve a final 1" by 1" dried dimension, what width would you suggest for the raw slicing? In other words, what percent shrinkage occurs from raw state to dried?
As to taste: is there a predominant taste of vinegar that one should go for to get the biltong flavor, or is the vinegar there more as a surface antimicrobial?
Have you used something like Morton Tenderquick to add some nitrate for a redder interior? That would also add more salt than you called for; just wondering if you've tried it. I have a hankering to go for a red center since one of the major appeals of this recipe, for me, is its softness relative to jerky.
For the exterior coriander and peppercorn, your pics seem to show them scattered rather than densely coating the surface. If I went with a denser coating of finely cracked seeds, do you think it would overwhelm?
As to drying method, I was, at your first posting, frankly skeptical about hanging with no low-heat source or fan ventilation. But as the days went one and the process contuned and you apparently survived I am now a believer. Have you ever compared the two methods (dehydrator vs closet ambient)? Does your hang-at-ambient-air-only method produce a richer flavor, perhaps akin to an aging rather than a purely drying process?
For my thin and drier jerky, I've always used a circular tray dehydrator, alternating every 8 or 12 hours between a circular forced air made by Rival, and a non-forced air with a radiant heating coil at the base, made by Ronco. (Yes, after tha rascal Ron Popeil made his fortune by selling the Pocket Fisherman in the 1970s, he produced a dehydrator that gives darn good results). It seems that one could construct a "stovepipe" from posterboard, the diameter of the dehydrator base, to support a tray from which the meat could hang, with hooks on both ends of the meat so that the chunks could be turned upside down at intervals since the heat or air force is always from the bottom. Ever done a side-by-side of the two methods?
Lastly, have you ever frozen your biltong for longer storage. I freeeze my much drier jerky with absolutely no change in texture since there is no water to expand and burst any cells. Would your wetter biltong be adversely affected by freezing?
Looking forward to your advice.
Dear CHOWHOUND FOLKS
This thread should go into your recipe area. The effort that TheFamine has put into this thread is well worthy of his own "recipe". Pictures and great descriptions. A Hound can't ask for anything more. I view this site for just this kind of knowledge, and more importantly someone willing to give this kind of info, time and effort into their endeavour(esp. reviews of restaurants).
Thanks for the kind words. Okay, let me address the various questions
as they come up. And bear in mind, relative to the majority of chowhounds,
I'm NO expert - I've just eaten biltong for decades, and finally got irked
enough at the high prices in the US for a staple cheap food back in South Africa,
to start making my own.
Just a first thought - because I have lousy knives at the moment, my slices are
fairly thick, and I've wondered what the local butcher would do if I took my biltong
down to the store and asked if they could slice it on their slicing machine.
Biltong usually comes in either wafer thin slices, or 'bite sized' - and my shapes
(of the end biltong) is fairly stodgy, as the pix show.
Some upmarket restaurants which make their own biltong, deliver a 'shaped' variety,
where the initial meat has been shaped ahead of time, to deliver a more rounded
(circular) slice of biltong. Mine is the totally quick and dirty version - and
I've given no thought when cutting the meat, to anything other than ensuring there's
sufficient 'flesh' remaining in the interior of the biltong.
So one can shape the initial cuts of meat to deliver a suitable end result of biltong thats
pleasing to the eye, if one wants to.
Next - as the next layer of harvesting pix will show (either today or tomorrow)- the soft
wet 'flesh' will continue to dry nicely, and become the same color as the exterior
throughout. It'll still be soft, in comparison to the 'skin' - but nowhere near as soft
as it was when I was munching it.
-The recent very hot weather, has meant that this is probably the longest I've hung biltong.
I've been making it throughout the winter, and in the unheated room here, with the open window (in spite of the snow) - the average time from meat - finished biltong, has been 4 days. So now I'm experiencing the standard length of time that's common, I guess, to biltong making back in Africa, where temps in the 90's and up, are normal year round temps..
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
To end up with a 1 by 1 piece, you'd probably need a 4 by 4 meat piece to start.
(the best way is to experiment. You can't hurt yourself with this stuff :)
Why not experiment and create a 4 by 4 section of meat, as well as a 3 by 3,
and see if that's large enough at start. If not, make a 5 by 5 ..
(All the best biltong comes from a lot of experimentation, to find just the right
combination of spices and marinades, as well as initial treatment of the meat.
There's no one 'perfect right way to make a uniform tasting biltong' - so no matter
what you add to the initial marinade, you'll get 'biltong' - but its up to the individual
to tweak spices and treatment to get it the way you want it).
To have a good 'yardstick' to shoot for - it could be worthwhile to taste some fairly professional commercial biltong - made by ex-pats who generally know what they're doing and are delivering a consistent tasty version..
I've ordered this biltong before - did it twice, before deciding to try make my own
as a cheaper alternative. (its $16.99 a pound) That said, its very good biltong. The makers have the spices and treatment almost exactly right, in comparison to standard South African biltong. (And no, I'm not connected to whoever this site is run by - it just happened to be the place I ordered biltong from, here in the US)
their general 'biltong' category: http://lekker.safeshopper.com/1/cat1....
and mainpage: http://lekker.safeshopper.com/index.h...
It can be useful to get your palate to know and taste the quality of 'proper' biltong, so that when you're finally creating your own with this approximate end taste, you know you're getting it right (as well as making any South African who eats it, bow down and worship you :)
Especially given that there seem to be some folks who haven't ever tasted 'real' biltong to begin with. Its useful to know what the food tastes like, so that you know what your home version is like, and can start tweaking the recipe towards it.
OKAY BACK TO THE ANSWERS
So shrinkage seems to vary - I found it shrunk more during winter, than it is shrinking now in the heat - thus a guestimate would be 30% perhaps? (I'm unsure because the biltong process was much faster with cold weather)
VINEGAR. I'm pretty sure its initially there as an anti-microbial (of a sort available
to traveling farmers in the 1600. That said, again, I've had nice results using a malt vinegar, as well as apple vinegar - and also regular white vinegar. The variables to add a subtle tang to your biltong, are infinite.
and 'Morton Tenderquick' Nope. I haven't added any - as I'm wary of most of the foods and chemicals here in the US, to begin with. And I've tended to operate on the idea that the meat anyway is filled with who knows what amounts of nitrates and chemicals. But that's just me.
I know some folks add salt petre, to get that pinkish sheen, but I'm too lazy to go hunt for it, and also I don't really mind a darkish looking biltong. I know its meat anyway, I don't always need it to have a pinkish sheen to it. Also, I'm erring on the side of 'total simplicity' - using the most simple ingredients I can. (My laziness again :)
RE EXTERIOR CORIANDER AND PEPPERCORN
(and if one coats densely, will it overwhelm it)
Short answer is, 'I think it would'.If one checks most recipes online for biltong, the spice quantities aren't that large to begin with. And that's often for 10 or 15 pounds of meat. The marinade time is when the spices and ingredients seem to get sucked into the meat, and I only once made the mistake of trying the 'dense' approach - using chili, which meant I had some fairly painful-to-eat spicy biltong that had a level of heat that was fairly ridiculous.
By coating it densely (such as with peppercorns) I think you'd end up with something overly peppery. I recall that some German meats use this dense layering - but that's not how to make biltong :)
(Although again, as I said.. experiment. Make up a batch of a variety of different meats to different approaches, then stick Post It Notes on each, so that you know which is which.. (if I still have pix, I'll show you my initial Post It notes versions of biltong, as I tried different recipes and treatments).
re the coriander, by the way, I should have browned them on the stove and then crushed them slightly - but again laziness took over.. but coriander is an integral part of the taste of biltong..
re different hanging methods - I've only ever done this 'hang in open alcove' route. And as I'm a fresh air fan, I sit here beside an open window - and have done throughout winter as well. So this small room is fairly well aired. Air flow is apparently vital to the process. The farmers in the 'old days' would hang meat from tree's and from the eaves of their houses (altho how they kept flies off it if it was from a tree, is beyond me).
As a side thought, I WAS eying some 'made in china' plastic mesh hanging cupboards - and wondering about enclosing biltong in a fly-proof material for outside hanging. That or mosquito netting might be a useful bug deterrent, if one was hunting out in the wilds and wanting to turn meat to biltong while traveling.
Again, for any hunter-types - just remember that its 'meat' and very tasty-smelling meat - and liable to attract every hungry animal in the area, from domestic cats and dogs, through to big scary bears :) So be careful with biltong-making if you're genuinely out in Nature. I'd recommend if you have to try doing it in 'real' Nature, you do it FAR away from your camp, and strung up high. If biltong attracts and turns cats and dogs into evil thieves, then you don't want to be on the receiving end of some larger wild animal hunting down that delicious smell :)
re hanging equaling 'aging' - I'm not sure, to be honest. I think the marinade opens the meat up and inhibits the aging process in favor of a radical 'drying out'.
On one of my first batches of biltong, I made the mistake of using (what I thought was suitable) quantities of salt - assuming then that salt was somehow a main part of the biltong process. And stupidly rolled the meat in salt. I ended up with ridiculously over-salted and inedible biltong that I eventually had to throw out. So forget about any 'salted meat or fish' approaches. Biltong requires just a tiny pinch of salt in total.
re freezing biltong - nope. Most online resources suggest that vacuum packed biltong should keep for some time. As regards my 'wet' biltong - I'd be wary of freezing it, given the amount of water inherent - which I guess would rupture the cells and alter the taste. (Like if you've tasted the crispness of a 'fresh' tomato versus the interior softness of a frozen tomato thats been thawed - the latter has a 'mushy' feel when chewed, because of the cell damage during the freezing of its water component. (Something I've run across a lot here in the US)
Also, remember that my version of 'wet' biltong, is actually too 'raw' still. The standard definition of 'wet' biltong, does require that it kind of looks like biltong - whereas I'm almost doing the equivalent of the sausage maker snacking on a bit of the raw mince amidst the sausage making. More or less. It's not strictly 'biltong' yet - its 'mostly' biltong, but not entirely - and because I'm familiar with the product, I know the difference between meat-flesh and biltong-flesh - so this is just on the edge of 'biltong-flesh' - and still en route to becoming uniformly biltong throughout. So don't mistake my biltong snacks yesterday as being the pinkish 'done' wet biltong. Or the pinkish sheen from nitrates. Its just me snacking on what I know is very freshly created biltong at the earliest possible eating point.
Point being - if you don't know the product well enough yet, hold on for another day or so - and err on the side of caution (not out of 'danger' - just in order to get the proper taste experience). Almost all biltong is 'soft' inside, regardless.
Dont assume that 'wet' biltong means it has to look as 'raw' as what I'm eating it looks like. It looks like this because I know the difference between meat-flesh and biltong-flesh. If you don't, then wait a day rather.
Again, its all about personal taste, I tend to like biltong in all its different stages - and this degree of 'wetness' - isn't really commercially available. Its just because I'm making it, that I can snack at this early stage of the process.
I'll post more pix of either today or probably tomorrows next batch of harvesting. (The hot weather is making this process much longer than I'm used to, which is why the last few days I've been a bit vague about when I'm harvesting.
Previously in winter I had it streamlined nicely, now I'm having to get used to a 2-3 day extension to the length of process I'm used to.
TheFamine, I have bookmarked this, I am so impressed that you took the time and effort to do this for us.
Thank you again, great job and excellent documentation!
Okay - did some more harvesting. It's clear that I was spoiled throughout winter - as it seems to take a LOOONG time for the biltong process to work and dry out the meat, now that the heat has returned. So work on the idea of AT LEAST 6 or 7 days (if not more) to get your meat into the desired total dry biltong state.
My camera is not behaving too well, so I got out of focus pix for some of the steps, until I realized I seem to need natural light to shoot with.
Pic 1. Shows the next three pieces of biltong, with 'S' shaped hanging things still attached.
Pic 2. Shows 1st piece harvested and roughly sliced. 2nd piece cut open, en route to being sliced. You can see that the cut away section shows that the biltong is indeed 'biltong' in the interior of the meat. Also that the biltong is very 'wet' (personally, if I'd known that the process needed to take longer - I probably would have waited even longer to harvest it all. Now I know. I'll deliberately take much longer in my next batch, so that you can see what completely 'dry' biltong looks like.
Pic 3 shows the next piece awaiting slicing. As you can see, the biltong is very wet and quite greasy - unusual to me, as I'm used to a rapid drying out during Winter.
Pic 4 shows the growing pile of wet biltong, as we as the slice cutaway from the next piece of biltong (camera is grrr out of focus) - but you can see that the color of the interior, is the dark color of biltong.
Pic 5 shows the artery-clogging joyful big pile of roughly cut wet biltong. It's now stashed in the fridge, and if I notice that its FINALLY drying out correctly in there, I'll take pix and show you.
I still have two pieces of biltong hanging. One is a massively fatty piece, and the other has a small amount of fat remaining. I'm going to leave these two to hang further, and see how long it takes before they actually dry out as they're supposed to.
But again, given what I've learned in this batch, about biltong-making in Summer/hot weather - leave your biltong hanging as long as possible. Its fine to nibble at from about day 5 - but to get the 'proper' dry biltong - I'm figuring at least a week if not longer - depending on the thickness of your meat to start with.
Its also normal, I figure, for the biltong to have a certain 'greasiness' in places - as the juices inside try to escape. Previously during the winter months, I think the cold air was simply radically drying my biltong, so this aspect of minor grease emerging, is just a normal by-product of the casual open-air biltong making that I'm doing.
I'll leave my two pieces hanging - I think we're now onto day erm? Not sure 6? 7? More?
and will post pix when I harvest it.
Hope this has provided folks with a lot of info, so that they can also dive in and make their own biltong, without any worries or fears.
Here're some last pix of the final 2 pieces of biltong as they're harvested. Not much difference - and I get the feeling, given the thickness of the initial meat slices, that I could have left them for even longer than a week in the recent hot weather, in order to get them to become 'proper' dark colored biltong.
Next batch I do, I'll deliberately cut some thinner pieces of meat to start with - to show the different results from thinner meat cuts to start with.
Technically, the result you want, using the above recipe, should provide you with a uniformly DARKER biltong - whereas because I was turning very thick slices of meat into biltong, its meant that I have a pinker hue throughout the biltong, that isn't usually there (at least not without something like salt petre added at the start).
So a slightly thinner cut will give better results in terms of proper uniformly dark biltong - whereas what I've made here is fairly 'wet' biltong that is quite edible, but a biltong purist would grumble at - as the 'flesh' is not totally turned into biltong (at least visually).
Here ends the 'making biltong' lesson :)
Next one will be a combo of 'making biltong 'snapsticks' - as well as making 'regular' darker colored biltong (both simply require starting with thinner cuts of meat than I did).
Having recently moved, and I had to change how I hung the biltong for the heck of it I placed a fan blowing directly at the meat - and this seems to accelerate the entire process dramatically. The meat went from only looking vaguely like biltong on day 3 or so, to looking like biltong within a day - and was edible and good to go by day 4.. So keep this option in mind, if you have the meat hanging someplace secure, and have a spare fan that you can blow at the meat 24/7 - you'll get VERY fast results.
Only thing to keep in mind, is that with the fan blowing, your meat may shift in the wind and be touching initially, which you don't want. So indirect blowing for a day, and then once the black biltong look has started, then direct blowing, as it wont matter if the meat cuts are gradually shifted by the fan and are jostling each other.
Another thing to simplify the ingredients and create a truly special biltong, is to consider making a purchase or asking someone in SA to send you a bag of premade 'biltong spice'. After a year of making my own biltong, I got a bag of premade genuine SA biltong spice, and it really makes a big difference. I'm not sure what the ingredients are, as the quantities of the spice-mix is a jealously guarded secret with different biltong-makers - but if you get the chance to access a bag of the 'real' spice, it does mean that you'll be tasting the closest thing to SA biltong you'll ever get.
Its not essential, and the ingredients I listed above, will still deliver a fairly tasty biltong - but the darn premade authentic stuff is awesome. The spices aspect is clearly the important part of the process. It makes me want to find a lab, and ask them to detail and breakdown the ingredients in the bag I have :)
The only ingredient I know my own recipe doesnt use, is salt petre, which I havent bothered to try and source, so I'm not sure if that's the 'mystery ingredient X'
regardless, experiment away, and Happy eating :)
Hey I was searching for a way to make jerky without sugar when your recipe practically landed in my lap from another site. Thanks for the in-depth descriptions, I can't wait to try it out!
I know this is an old post, but I was wondering if you could answer a question for me-- is there something you can substitute in for the Worcester sauce that doesn't contain any sugar or other sweeteners? I am assuming it is just for flavor, maybe it can be left out? I can't eat refined sugar due to health reasons.
(late reply) re Worcester sauce for flavor. Just leave it out. It wont affect anything. And actually, these days, I keep the making as simple as possible. No sugary things anywhere.
Soak in vinegar for 24 hours, along with black pepper & toasted coriander, and then string the things up.
That's it. My initial fancy approach with lots of seemingly required ingredients, has fallen away somewhat. Everything apart from these listed things: vinegar, black pepper, coriander - are just extra tweaks that aren't necessary to the meat becoming biltong.
In addition, I keep a fan blowing on the stuff, which both speeds up the drying/blackening of the exterior, and hastens the hardening. The fan also keeps bugs off :)
Great thread...What is considered dry? I actually have a hygrometer to read the percentage of humidity in the air. I am either running AC or heat in my house so I would think the air would be dry enough. Does it have to be 60%,50%, 40%, etc... humidity? Also I heard that soaking in vinegar overwhelmes the meat and you are supposed to just brush the vinegar on.
Hi The Famine
As a South African searchinging for biltong recipes i was well impresed to find so many non South Africans intrested in making biltong. The one point i picked up is that alot of people are struggling with the drying process. Biltong definetally needs a dry warm climate to mature in and this can be achieved with differant methods.
1. Room drying- use a large fan to blow air over the biltong and warm the room
2. Box drying- Get a large cardboard or wooden box. Create a false perforated bottom.In the cavity below install an old 60w light bulb( the new eco friendly ones do not create enough heat). In the upper part of the box dowls can be put across from side to side to create hanging rods for your biltong. In the lid install a small fan. ( the type that cools the hard drive of your computer works well).This method should give you great biltong in about 4 days.Lucky for us in South Africa there are people who specialise in making these boxes.
Hope this helps and keep on eating good Tong.