alcohol free wine
what is alcohol free wine ? how do they make it? anybody knows
Various methods are used. As far as I know, all start with standard wine and none remove absolutely all the alcohol. Reverse osmosis (membrane) and vacuum distillation (boiling the alcohol off in an artificial vacuum; the vacuum lowers the boiling point) are the most common methods in Europe. Spinning cone columns (a complex and expensive combination of vacuum and centrifuge) are popular in the US and increasingly elsewhere, though I believe they are used mainly to lower the strength of high alcohol wines (from, say, 16% to 14%), not to produce nearly alcohol-free wines. The best explanation of the dealcoholization process I've seen is in Jamie Goode's The Science of Wine. The Oxford Companion to Wine articles are also quite good.
Carswell has explained it quite well, as well as given you some additional sources of information.
I would only add that
1) R.O. is used here in the U.S. (Ariél = R.O.; Sutter Home's Fré = spinning cone).
2) I have *never* had an alcohol-free "wine" that tasted the same as a "regular" wine.
Not sure about nomenclature in the US but in the UK the terms are defined by law:
non alcoholic = 0% alcohol by volume
alcohol free = 0.05% ABV or less
dealcoholised = 0.5% ABV or less
low alcohol = 1.2% ABV or less
Above 1.2% ABV, duty is payable and a vendor's licence is required.
You might as well ask why seedless oranges are allowed to have seeds (5 or 6 if I recall correctly).