tequila vs mezcal?
All tequilas are mezcal. Tequila is traditionally from the town of Tequila and is made with 100% blue agave. There are now five Mexican states where Tequila can be produced, I am sure this really fills the people of Tequila with all kinds of joy that so many other people are benefiting from their ancestors hard work. But I digress, the agave used in Tequila is always steamed, the best producers of mezcal roast the agave. This gives it a much different flavor than the steamed Agave in Tequila. Not everyone likes the roasted flavor, personally I do, and favor a nice mezcal over tequila. Please beware that mezcal is a catch-all word for any liquor made from the agave, and can be quite ghastly (it is cheap mezcal that has the worm in the bottle).
SThitch is correct; all tequila is mezcal--but not all mezcal is tequila. As SThitch said, tequila is made from the blue agave cactus--the blue Weber agave, to be exact. Mezcal, on the other hand, can be made from several (seven or eight, if I recall correctly) different types of maguey/agave cacti, including, most commonly, the Espadín variety. Mezcal is primarily produced in Oaxaca. Tequila is primarily produced in the state of Jalisco, where the town of Tequila is located, although it may be produced in several other states.
Not all liquors labeled 'tequila' are in fact made of 100% blue agave; less expensive tequilas can contain up to 49% other sugars and chemical yeasts and may still be labeled 'tequila'. The 51% agave content MUST be blue Weber agave, not some other kind of agave. If the label says the tequila is 100% agave, you're looking at excellent (and usually quite expensive) sipping quality tequila.
A Mexican associate of mine recently took several cases of tequila in trade for some expensive merchandise. My associate failed to look closely at the label prior to making the trade and discovered to his chagrin that the label (which he thought said 100% agave) in fact said *100% Mexican*. The ingredients list was deceptive and the stuff was 100% undrinkable. Caveat emptor!
Mezcal is a term mean over cooked agave, which create a smoky flavor, when people asked me what is mezcal, i described it as smoky tequila. simple done, tequila also made from agave but not over heated, yes 4 type of tequila, blanco, reposado, anejo, but all 3 does not has the smokiness of mezcal cause they dont over heat the agave, NOW, it doesnt matter how they make it is the different, it is how they tasted, tequila, the more they aged the more it tend to get sweet, blanco (6 months to 1 year) reposado (1 year to 3 years of aged) anejo (3 years up) and their is extra anejo (6 years up), it is like saying about whiskey, rye, bourbon and yes, scotch, smokey of all whiskey while rye and bourbon tend to be more spicy, but their is more to it when you taste the different whiskeys, trace and elmer t lee, both bourbon, trace tend to be more smooth and light peppery while elmer t lee tend to be a little bit more sweet, but to the naked taste of non drinker, they all taste spicy and the same.
MECAL, smokey tequila, best way to described
I have a non-smoky mezcal, Fidencio sin humo, the agave is cooked in an autoclave, has a very different taste from tequila - made from a different species of agave and fermented using wild yeast.
Your age descriptions are way off, blanco can be aged up to 60 days but only in stainless tanks, repos up to a year, anejos 1-3 yrs and extra anejos 3 yrs or more.
All liquors distilled from any agave plant are mezcal. The most famous mezcal is distilled from a variety of agave grown in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. Technically, tequila is one type of mezcal.
The official Mexican standard (NOM) defines Tequila as the product of fermentation and distillation of the blue agave juices obtained at the distillery from agave cores or piñas grown in the legally defined "Tequila Region" and allows for the addition of up to 49% sugars from sources other than the agave plant. However the NOM defines as Tequila 100% Agave as the one containing sugars exclusively from the blue agave plant and it must be bottled at the distillery. Alcohol content must be between to 35º and 55º Guy Lussac (70 to 110 Proof).
Viva Tequila! - http://www.itequila.org/
Ian's Tequila Pages - http://www.ianchadwick.com/tequila/
Michael's Tequila 101
Michael's Tequila Ordering Advice
The Tequila Lover's Guide to Mexico and Mezcal: Everything There Is to Know About Tequila and Mezcal, Including How to Get There by Lance Cutler
> All liquors distilled from any agave plant are mezcal.
> The most famous mezcal is distilled from a variety of
> agave grown in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico.
I do not believe this is (quite) true; I think the agave growth and the distillation into mezcal must be done in Mexico, or particular regions of Mexico. You couldn't grow an agave plant in your back yard, harvest/cook/ferment/distill it, and call it mezcal.
Julio Bermejo at Tommy's explains that the only two Denomination of Origin spirits in North America are mezcal and tequila. So there is definitely a geographical aspect to the name.
All the tequila information, of course, is correct.
re: Michael Alderete
Picky, picky - be careful or you'll be sleeping on the couch ;-)
I pulled that info off itequila.com without examining it carefully.
Yes, mezcal is a DOM and you can't really make it yourself. Although recently someone (Julio?) was telling me that some other countries are not enforcing it. I think he said that some African nations (where apparently agave can grow) are producing and selling a liquor they are labeling "mezcal". I don't know if this African mezcal is sold in the U.S.
I guess its similar to champagne, all producers in France respect their DOM and most reputable producers outside France use the term "sparkling wine" but there are some who mislead the public and use the term champagne. Its really up to the buyer to read the label.
Below is another interesting article, it has more mezcal info usual (most articles focus entirely on tequila).
I recently read that while the EU agreed to respect Mexico's claim for tequila's DOM, it has not enforced it, allowing several knockoffs to exist.
Also, while it might be technically true that Tequila is North America's only EU-recognized DOM, it is worth noting that under NAFTA, the US (much more important market than the EU for tequila, I'd say) agreed to respect Mexico's geographic designation for tequila in exchange for Mexico's acceptance of the US restrictions on what can be called bourbon and Tennessee whiskey.
> What's the difference betwen mezcal and tequila?
> [...] Do you use them differently, and do they taste
> different from one another?
I don't know a lot of mixed drinks that use mezcal, while there are dozens that use tequila. That's probably ignorance on my part.
Certainly, the best way to enjoy quality products of either type is to drink them neat, out of a snifter or wine glass or cordial glass.
As for the taste, if you can taste the difference between two decent 100% agave tequilas (neat or in a cocktail), then you'll definitely taste the difference between nearly any tequila and mezcal.
I personally don't care much for mezcal, but I haven't tasted a lot of it, and probably nothing quite as good as even the average tequila I'm drinking these days, so take that with a grain of salt.
Below is the link to Del Maguey Mezcal, located in Teotilan del Valle in Oaxaca. Del Maguey produces 5 single distilled mezcals and a crema mezcal. All are produced by indigenous communitities, by hand, donkey and still. The communities are located at various altitudes in the mountains of Southern Mexico in the State of Oaxaca. In a side by side taste test, it is possible to taste the nuances, differences and complexities that the differences in altitude imparts.
Del Maguey offers a limited edition mezcal called "Pechuga", which is Spanish refers to a chicken breast. And believe it or not, a chicken breast (or multiple chicken breasts), are hung in the still during the final distillation process. The resulting liquor has no hints of chicken flavor at all, but is redolent of florals and spice. Pechuga in the U.S., if you can find it, retails for $200+ a bottle. It's very, very smooth and goes down like velvet. It's truly remarkable stuff.
I have no connection with Del Maguey other than I've had two occasions to meet the American ex-pat (long term, 30+ years in Oaxaca) who has been working with and developing the indigenous communities mezcal cultivation and production. I've also been to their distribution center (i.e. an old barn/shed-like structure) and tasted all their products. The crema is fabulous as well. Del Maguey is not that hard to find in the U.S., especially on the West Coast, the Southwest or Chicago.
The web site below has short essays about pulque, tequila and mezcal, which can probably answer the question.
Here are some facts and clarifications regarding Tequila and Mezcal- this information is based on my knowledge of the spirit and catagory, we are Mezcal producers in Oaxaca.
1) Mezcal is the oldest distilled spirit in North America. The Spaniards brought the distilling techniques (they learned from the Moors) when they conquered Mexico and started using local ingredients to make liquor, agave having an extremely high sugar content was perfect. Before the Spaniards, the locals made a low alcohol (3% or so) beverage from agave.
2) Mezcal and Tequila both have their own Domination of Origin status and protection
3) Mezcal came under certification by the Mexican government div. Comercom, in 2005. All Mezcal produced must now be 100% agave. Tequila dues not require 100% agave and as stated in some notes below, yes, they can cut it 49/51 % with other alcohol.
4) The AGAVE plant is a member of the Lily family- it is not a cactus. There are more than 400 varieties of agave woldwide.
5) Mezcal can legally be made from up to 28 recognized varieties of agave, including the Blue agave as long as it is grown in the proper region.
6) Mezcal can legally be produced in 7 states in Southern Mexico- the main one being Oaxaca.
7) Tequila was first produced in 1795 (approx) when Jose Cuervo applied to the Spanish govenment for a permit to make "Mezcal de Tequila".
8) Tequila can legally be produced in 6-7 states in Northen Mexico, main state being Jalisco
9) All MEZCAL must be bottled in Mexico
10) 85% of Tequila is shipped out of Mexico in bulk containers and then mixed and bottled with cheaper alcohols.
(the 100% agave tequilas are usually bottled in Mexico)
11) Tequila does NOT contain a worm, is only in Mezcal
12) The worm in Mezcal is a flavoring- not an aphrodisiac or anything of the sort. In Oaxaca, they use the agave worms in specialty foods (tacos) and also Sal de Gusano = Worm Salt. Note- we import the worm salt also, and use for rimming salts.
If you try a silver worm mezcal next to a no -worm mezcal, you can taste the difference.
13) Mezcals come in same agings as tequila.
Silver or Joven = freshly distilled and clear color
Reposado, rested in oak from 2-11 mos.
Anejo = aged 1 year or longer in oak.
Our top of the line Mezcal is aged 7 years and is triple distilled, it is more similar to a cognac than a tequila
14) Mezcal is smokier tasting than Tequila. Mezcal is produced in small batches, roasting the agave in an earth oven. So- the silver is even a bit smokey. Tequila is typically made in large industrial batches, and is steamed, not roasted so you don't get the smokey flavor assocatied with mezcal.
15) No chemicals are used in the production of Mezcal, natural yeast from the air is used to ferment and takes about 2 weeks. Most industrial batches of Tequila use chemicals to quicken the fermentation.
16) All certified Mezcal has a little green leaf symbol on the label and each producer has their NOM listed on each bottle.
Did I miss anything?
amazing!! you guys know everything about Mezcal. I'm from Oaxaca and I'm a tour guide.
we have several Mezcal factories in Oaxaca, tourists love the mezcal factory tour. one of the best brands of Mezcal is Beneva.
I'm living in Minnesota now and everytime I go back to visit my family in Oaxaca I buy 3 or 4 bottles of Mezcal because my friends here in Minnesota love Mezcal.
it's hard to find the real mezcal here in the states.