This is my basic recipe. Variations listed below.
10 oz (about 2.5 cups) AP flour
2 Tbsp baking powder
1/2 tsp salt
4 oz (1/2 cup) butter, in small cubes
1 cup buttermilk
Sift together dry ingredients. Cut or rub butter into dry ingredients until it resembles coarse flour. [At this point, you can add any of the "variations" below.] Add buttermilk all together and stir until the dough comes together, adding a little more buttermilk if dough is too dry. Pat dough into a flat log about 1 inch thick. Cut log in half, then each half into half so you have 4 equal sized pieces. Cut each of those pieces into a triangle by slicing it diagonally, so you have 8 pieces.
Bake on a silpat at 400 degrees until they are done, about 10-15 minutes. They should be a slight golden brown, but not very brown or they will be too hard when they cool.
Add 1 cup shredded medium cheddar cheese and 1 tablespoons of chopped fresh dill
Add 1 cup sharp cheddar and 1/2 cup diced ham
Add 2/3 cup shredded (NOT grated) parmesan or asiago cheese, 1 Tbsp fresh chopped rosemary and 2 Tbsp toasted pine nuts
Add 2/3 cup sauteed diced onions, 1/2 cup shredded gouda, and 1 Tbsp fresh thyme
Add 2 Tbsp sugar to the sifted dry ingredients, then add 1 cup of any dried fruits or nuts that you'd like. Chunks of chocolate are good, too, and a bit of orange or lemon zest can be tasty, too. Some of my favorite combinations...
1/2 cup dried cranberries
1/2 cup toasted walnuts, chopped
1/2 cup white chocolate chunks
1 tsp orange zest
1/2 cup dried cherries
1/2 cup dark chocolate chunks
1/3 cup crystalized ginger
1 Tbsp grated fresh ginger
2 tsp grated orange zest
1 cup fresh blueberries
1 tsp lemon zest
re: Non Cognomina
I'm a bit surprised that your recipe calls for baking powder and not baking soda. I grew up making scones, the British kind, which can be made with sour milk. This was in the days when milk soured naturally. If you used sour milk, equivalent of modern buttermilk, you substituted baking soda which reacts with the acid to raise the dough.
Scientifically, you are correct that the acid in the buttermilk/sour milk will react with the baking soda to raise the dough. The reason I prefer baking powder in the scones is that baking powder is double acting--it contains acid that is released when wet to react with the base (first reaction), and it is activated again when it is heated/baked (second reaction)to create a lighter texture in the crumb of the scone, which is my preference.