Correct me if I'm wrong, but isn't "pan roasting" the same as frying (or, for les distingues, sauteeing?)
No, it's different. Frying is using the high heat of fat to steam out the water in a food and cook it (deep frying is done to keep the temperature of the fat relatively high so that the food absorbs less of the fat, but I digress). Sauteeing involves periodic tossing of food in a bit of fat to cook it by the heat of the pan; the word "saute" refers to when the food "leaps" as you jerk the pan forth and back, which is why a saute pan has curved sides.
Pan roasting is where you use a bit of fat to sear and crust something (you don't want to move it around, because that will disrupt searing and crust formation), and then you finish it in that pan in the oven, where the radiant heat from the surfaces will finish the cooking process.
re: Karl S.
The process you describe is traditionally called "roasting".
"Pan roasting" is done entirely on the stovetop. First over high heat to form a crust, but then over low heat on the stovetop to let the ambient heat from the pan finish the cooking. This is typically used for vegetables and fish, but it works with small tender cuts of meat too.