In Bourdain's Les Halles cookbook, he references letting the food "sweat" multiple times. What exactly is this, sitting there after simmering without any heat?
Sweating refers to cooking on a lower heat with a small amount of fat. Sweating occurs before "browning" of any kind. Usually you would sweat vegetables, particularly onions, so adding them to some hot olive oil with a little salt and cooking them where they start to get translucent, but not browning would be sweating.